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(157 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, or Almugávares, a name, apparently derived from the Arabic al-mug̲h̲āwir "one who makes hostile incursions", which was given at the end of the Middle Ages to certain contingents of mercenaries levied from among the mountaineers of Aragon, a tough, sober but undisciplined race. Zurita ( Anales , iv, 24) gives a picturesque description of them. These were the troops, fighting on foot, in the service of the Kings of Aragon and Castille, who cut to pieces the French army of Philip III the Bold during his campaign of 1285,…

al-Nāṣir al-Salāwī

(1,220 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. K̲h̲ālid b. Ḥammād al-Nāṣirī , a Moroccan historian born at Salé on 22 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 1250/20 April 1835, died in the same town on 16 D̲j̲umādā I 1315/13 October 1897. The genealogy of this writer can be traced in a direct line to the founder of the Moroccan brotherhood of the Nāṣiriyya [ q.v.], Aḥmad b. Nāṣir, who was buried in his zāwiya at Tāmgrūt in the valley of the Wādī Darʿa (Drā). He studied in his native town, which had in those days some reputation as a centre of learning, and was a mi…

Abu ’l-Maḥāsin Yūsuf b. Muḥammad b. Yūsuf al-Fāsī

(322 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Moroccan scholar, and Ṣūfī s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ of repute, born in 938/1530-31, the ancestor of the Fāsiyyūn (vernacular Fāsiyyīn) family, which, since the 16th century, has provided the town of Fās with a long succession of scholars and jurists. ¶ Abū’l-Maḥāsin al-Fāsī himself belonged to the Fihrite branch of the Banu ’l-Ḏj̲add, which, about 880/1473, had emigrated from Malaga, in Spain, to Morocco. He was born at al-Ḳaṣr al-Kabīr (or, in the Spanish form, Alcázarquivir), where his grandfather Yūsuf had settled after …


(263 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, arabicised form of Secunda, name of a little town opposite Cordova on the left bank of the Guadalquivir. According to al-Maḳḳarī and Ibn G̲h̲ālib, it was originally surrounded by a rampart. It was here that a decisive battle was fought in 129/747 between the Maʿaddī clan under Yūsuf al-Fihrī [ q.v.] and al-Sumayl b. Ḥātim [ q.v.] and the Yamanī clan commanded by Abu ’l-K̲h̲aṭṭār, who was defeated. Later, at the zenith of the Umayyad caliphate, Secunda became one of the richest suburbs of Cordova and was also called the “southern suburb” ( al-rabaḍ al-d̲j̲anūbī ). Th…

Abū Muḥammad Ṣāliḥ

(191 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
b. Yanṣāran b. G̲h̲afiyyān al-Dukkālī al-Mād̲j̲irī , famous Moroccan saint of the 6th-7th century A. H., patron of the town of Āsfī [ q.v.], the present-day Safi. Born about 550/1155, his principal master was the famous Abū Madyan [ q.v.] al-G̲h̲awt̲h̲, patron of Tilimsān (Tlemcen). He went on pilgrimage to Mecca and is believed to have stayed in Alexandria twenty years to follow the teaching of the ṣūfī ʿAbd al-Razzāḳ al-Ḏj̲azūlī, who was of Moroccan origin. After his return to Morocco he became the propagandist among his fellow-countrymen of the ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ and ṭalab al-ʿilm


(286 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Abū Yaḥyā Muḥammad b. Maʿn b. Muḥammad Ibn Ṣumādiḥ al-Tud̲j̲ībi , second ruler of the dynasty of Tud̲j̲ībids [ q.v.] of the kingdom of Almería [see al-mariyya ], reigned 443-484/1051-1091. Gifted like his contemporary al-Muʿtamid [ q.v.] of Seville with a certain amount of poetic talent, he made his capital during his long reign one of the great centres of culture in the Peninsula. But like the other mulūk al-ṭawāʿif [ q.v.] of Spain, he was for the most of his time at war with one or another of his neighbours. He was probably implicated in the conspiracy fomented…


(99 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, from Arabic madīna "town", is used in French ( médina ) to designate, above all in the Mag̲h̲rib, the ancient part of the great Islamic cities, beyond which have been constructed the modern quarters of the city. Moreover, Medina has survived in Spain in a certain number of toponyms. The main ones of these are: Medina de las Torres, in the province of Badajoz; Medina del Campo and Medina de Rioseco, in that of Valladolid; Medina de Pomar, in that of Burgos; and also, Medinaceli [see madināt salīm ] and Medina-Sidonia [see s̲h̲ad̲h̲ūna ]. (E. Lévi-Provençal)

Aḥmad al-Manṣūr

(950 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, sixth sovereign of the Moroccan dynasty of the Saʿdids [ q.v.], son of the second sultan of the dynasty, Muḥammad al-S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-Mahdī (d. 964/1557), was born at Fez in 956/1549. He held various military commands, but was driven into exile at Algiers with his elder brother, ʿAbd al-Malik. The latter, on acceding to the throne in 983/1576, designated Aḥmad as his heir presumptive. Two years later Aḥmad took part in the famous battle of Wādi ’l-Mak̲h̲āzin, in the vicinity of al-Ḳaṣr al-Kabīr [ q.v.] in the N.W. of Morocco. This battle, which took place on the last day of Ḏj̲u…

Madīnat Sālim

(434 words)

Author(s): Lévi Provençal, E.
, the Arabic name, which has become Medinaceli , of a small town in north-eastern Spain, on the railway from Madrid to Saragossa, and almost equidistant from these two cities; it lies at an altitude of more than 3,280 feet/1,000 m., on the left bank of the Jalón. It owes its name to a Berber from the Maṣmūda, Sālim, who repaired a Roman fortress which Ṭāriḳ [ q.v.], according to Yāḳūt, iii, 13, had found in a ruinous state. The Arab geographers give brief descriptions of Medinaceli. According to al-Idrīsī, it was a large town built in a hollow with many large buildings, ga…

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Muḥammad b. Abī ʿĀmir

(278 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, nicknamed Sanchuelo (S̲h̲and̲j̲wilo), the "little Sancho" (as he was by his mother a grandson of Sancho Garcés II Abarca, Basque king of Pamplona), son of the famous "majordomo" al-Manṣūr [ q.v.] b. Abī ʿĀmir. He suceeded his elder brother ʿAbd al-Malik [ q.v.] al-Muẓaffar on his death, 16 Ṣafar 399/20 Oct. 1008, with the consent of the titular ¶ caliph, the Umayyad His̲h̲ām II al-Muʾayyad bi’llāh. Indifferently gifted, vain, debauched, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Sanchuelo, from the moment that he assumed power in Cordova, made one mistake after the other and alienated p…


(317 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, a Spanish Arabic place-name corresponding to the Spanish Segura. This last name is now only applied to the river which waters Murcia and Orihuela and flows into the Mediterranean near Guardamar. In the Muslim geographers, this river is usually called the “white river” ( al-nahr al-abyaḍ ). It rises, like the Guadalquivir, in the range called D̲j̲abal S̲h̲aḳūra, but on the eastern slope. The mountains to which this name was given are of considerable extent. They were, according to the Arab geographers, covered with for…

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(2,967 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, the name of the Marwānid prince who restored the Umayyad dynasty in al-Andalus, and of four of his successors. 1. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān I, called al-Dāk̲h̲il , ‘the Immigrant’, was the son of Muʿāwiya b. His̲h̲ām [ q.v.]. When his relatives were being hunted down by the ʿAbbāsids, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, still a youth—he was born in 113/731—contrived to escape secretly to Palestine, whence, accompanied by his freedman Badr, he made his way first to Egypt, and then to Ifrīḳiya. At Ḳayrawān, the hostile attitude of the governor, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b.…


(1,034 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim b. Aḥmad b. ʿAlī b. Ibrāhīm, Moroccan statesman and historian of the 18th century. Al-Zayyānī, a member of the great Berber tribe of ¶ the Zayyān in central Morocco, was born in Fās in 1147/1734-5. He received his education in this city. At the age of 23, he accompanied his parents on the Pilgrimage to Mecca and after an exciting journey, coming as well as going, which lasted over two years, he returned to Fās, where he obtained a position as secretary to the mak̲h̲zan [ q.v.] of sultan Muḥammad III b. ʿAbd Allāh. His ability, his knowledge of Berber dialects and the …

ʿAbd al-Malik b. Muḥammad b. Abī ʿĀmir

(537 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
al-Maʿāfirī Abū Marwān al-Muẓaffar , son and successor of the famous "major domo" ( ḥād̲j̲ib ) al-Mansūr [ q.v.] under the reign of the Umayyad caliph of al-Andalus His̲h̲ām II al-Muʾayyad biʾllāh. He was the real sovereign of Muslim Spain after the death of his father in Medinaceli (Madīnat Sālim) in 392/1002. ʿAbd al-Malik, second son of al-Manṣūr, was born in 364/975; his mother, an umm walad called al-Ḏh̲alfāʾ, survived him several years. Even before succeeding his father he gained experience as general in several campaigns, both in t…

Abū Ḥāmid al-G̲h̲arnāṭī

(465 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Muḥammad b. ʿabd al-Raḥmān (variant al-Raḥīm ) b. Sulaymān al-Māzinī al-Ḳaysī , Andalusian traveller and collector of ʿad̲j̲āʾib [ q.v.] at the beginning of the 6th/12th century, the perfect type of the Occidental raḥḥāla , drawn by the desire of ṭalab al-ʿilm and the spirit of adventure to the farthest limits of the lands of Islam. There is little biographical information about him and the main dates of his adventurous life are given by himself in his works. He was born in Granada in 473/1080, no doubt studied i…


(142 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Lorca, a town of Eastern Spain lying between Granada and Murcia and having a population at present of 58,600. It is the ancient Iluro or Heliocroca of the Romans. In the Islamic period, it formed part of the kūra of Tudmīr [ q.v.], and was famous both for the richness of its soil and subsoil and for its strategic position. Its ḥiṣn was one of the most substantial in Andalusia. It is situated at 1,200 feet above sea-level on the southern slope of the Sierra del Cáno, and dominates the course of the river Guadalentín. Under Arab rule …

Abū ʿUbayd al-Bakrī

(2,309 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Abd Allāh b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Muḥ. b. Ayyūb , was, with al-S̲h̲arīf al-Idrīsī [ q.v.], the greatest geographer of the Muslim West, and one of the most characteristic representatives of Arab Andalusian erudition in the 5th/11th century. Although little is known about the details of the life of Abū ʿUbayd al-Bakrī, it is possible to describe the various aspects of his scientific activity, all of which seems to have taken place in his own country; in fact, he appears never to have travelled in the East, or even North Africa, which he …

ʿAbd al-Ḳādir b. ʿAlī b. Yūsuf al-Fāsī

(120 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, the most famous representative of the Moroccan family of the Fāsiyyūn, b. in al-Ḳaṣr al-Kabīr 1077/1599, d. 1091/1680. He was the head of the zāwiya of the S̲h̲ād̲h̲iliyya in al-Ḳaṣr al-Kabīr. He wrote a fahrasa and some books on ḥadīt̲h̲ , but he is best known as one of the main representatives of Moroccan ṣūfism at the beginning of the 17th century. His descendants form today a very numerous and important branch of the religious and scholarly aristocracy of Fez (the inhabitants of the town being called, in order to avoid a confusion with the family of the Fāsiyyūn, ahl Fās ). (E. Lévi-Provenç…

Abū Ḥafṣ ʿUmar b. S̲h̲uʿayb al-Ballūtī

(344 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, native of Pedroche (Bitrawd̲j̲) in the Faḥṣ al-Ballūt, a district to the north of Cordova, founder of a minor dynasty which ruled over the island of Crete (Iḳrītis̲h̲ [ q.v.]) between 212/827 and 350/961, when his descendant ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. S̲h̲uʿayb was dethroned and the island recaptured by the general and future Byzantine emperor Nicephorus Phocas. After the celebrated revolt of the Suburb which broke out in Cordova in 202/818 and was harshly suppressed by the amīr Ḥakam I (cf. umayyads of spain), a group of Andalusians, several thousand in number, who had been expelled …


(198 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad , a Moroccan writer, a native of Tamgrūt [ q.v.], died at Marrākus̲h̲ in 1003/1594-5 and was buried in the sanctuary of Ḳāḍī ʿIyāḍ. He held an official position at the court of the Saʿdian Sultan Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad al-Manṣūr al-D̲h̲ahabī (986-1012/1578-1602). He was placed by this ruler in charge of the embassy to Sultan Murād III in Istanbul along with another court dignitary, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-Fis̲h̲tālī, d. 1021/1612-13. Al-Tamgrūtī prepared an account of his journey ( riḥla ) which he called al-Nafaḥāt al-miskiyya fi ’l…
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