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(237 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
(sometimes Salṭīs̲h̲), Spanish Saltes, is the name which the Arab geographers give to the little island situated in the estuary of the river Odiel opposite the modern Huelva (Ar.: Walba). A fairly minute description of it is given by al-ldrīsī: it almost touches the mainland on the west coast, for the arm of the sea which separates it is only half a stone’s throw in width. This island has no spring of drinking water; there was a little town on it in the period of Muslim rule. It is a fishing cent…


(3,317 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, in Spanish Sevilla, Arabic Is̲h̲bīlīya (ethnic Is̲h̲bīlī), a large city in Spain with over 150,000 inhabitants at the present day and capital of the province of the same name, formerly capital of the kingdom of Seville situated at an average height of 45 feet above sea level in a vast plain, on the left bank of the Guadalquivir (Arabic al-Wādī ’l-Kabīr = Wād al-Kebīr = the “great river”), which separates it from the suburb of Triana (Arabic Ṭaryāna; cf. Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am al-Buldān, q. v.). Although 60 miles from the sea the town has all the advantages of a seaport on account…

Madīnat al-Zahrāʾ

(781 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, the ancient capital of the Umaiyad Caliphs of Cordova, the ruins of which are still in existence about 5 miles to the west of this latter town, at the place called Cordoba la Vieja, on one of the last spurs of the Sierra Morena overlooking the valley of Guadalquivir [q. v.]. The western Arab historians give us a great deal of information on the foundation of this royal town, upon the period which marked its prosperity and upon the causes which led to its fall. It was the great Caliph ʿAbd al-Raḥmān III al-Nāṣir [q. v.], who decided upon buildin…

Māʾ al-ʿAinain

(1,741 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
al-S̲h̲ingīṭī, the name by which the famous agitator in Mauritania [q. v.] at the end of the xixth century and beginning of the xxth century is best known (several explanations of his soubriquet are given; the literal meaning is “the water of the eyes” but the most satisfactory seems to be that which sees in it simply a euphemism, like that in the expression Ḳurrat al-Ain). Muḥammad Muṣṭafā Māʾ al-ʿAinain was the twelfth son of a chief and marabout of great fame in his own country, Muḥammad Fāḍil b. Māʾmīn, born at Walāta at the end of the xviiith century and chief of the Moorish tribe of Ga…


(281 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Muḥammad b. Maʿn b. Muḥammad Ibn Ṣumādiḥ al-Tud̲j̲ībī, second ruler of the dynasty of Tud̲j̲ībids [q. v.] of the kingdom of Almeria [q. v.], reigned from 443 to 484 (1051—1091). Gifted like his contemporary al-Muʿtamid [q. v.] of Seville with a certain amount of poetic talent, he made his capital during his long reign one of the great centres of culture in the Peninsula. But like the other mulūk al-ṭawāʾif of Spain, he was for the most of his time at war with one or other of his neighbours. He was without doubt implicated in the conspiracy fomented by the Jew Yū…


(151 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, the name of several places in Spain; the Arabic form is Ṭalabīra. They are the following: 1. Talavera de la Reina, a town of 10,600 inhabitants, the Caesarobriga of the Romans, on a fertile plain on the banks of the Tagus about 100 miles below Toledo, at the entrance to the Sierra de Gredos: Towers dating from the period of Arab occupations may still be seen there: “the Torres Albarranas”. The Arab geographers boast of the solidity of the ḥiṣn of this town; 2. ca. 20 miles south of the latter: Talavera la Vieja, the ancient Augustobriga; 3. Talavera la Real, a little village ¶ on the south bank o…


(2,875 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
(Ar. Ṭulaiṭula), atown in Spain in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula 60 miles S. S. W. of Madrid. Built 2,000 feet above sea-level on a granite hill and surrounded on three sides by a bend in the Tagus, which has dug out its bed along the bottom of a deep fault, it commands in its immediate vicinity a fertile vega which runs to N. E. and N. W. along the river and beyond it is the plain of denudation of the Castilian plateau. Toledo has at the present day only some 25,000 inhabitants. It is the capital of the province of the same name and the see of the…


(81 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, the principal t own in the district of Sūs, to the south of Morocco on the right bank of the Wādī Sūs, about 100 miles S. W. of Marrākus̲h̲ and 45 E of Āgādir on the Atlantic. These two towns may be reached from Tārūdānt by tracks passable by vehicles. It is a little town with about 7,000 inhabitants. For further details and the history of the town see the article al-sūs al-aḳṣā, especially p. 569b. (E. Lévi-Provençal)


(218 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, a name given in Muslim Spain to the mountain massif of the south of Andalusia, now called Serrania de Ronda. This is undoubtedly a double of the Berber word which is frequently found in North African names, tākrūna. Different writers have given different vocalisations of Tākoronnā: they may be found collected with references in a valuable note by W. Marçais and Abderrahmân Guîga, Textes arabes de Takroûna [in Tunisia], i., Paris 1925, p. viii., note I. Cf. also Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲ām, s. v. s̲h̲īrāz; Ibn Bas̲h̲kuwāl, al-Ṣila, ed. Codera, B. a. h., p. 185 and 302; Ibn ʿAbd al-Munʿim al-Ḥimyarī, al-…


(194 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
(the manufacturer of string from palm-fibre, s̲h̲rīṭ), Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. ʿAis̲h̲ūn, son of a mud̲j̲āhid, slain in battle which the Spaniards at al-Maʿmūra (al-Mahdīya = San Miguel de Ultramar) was born at Fās in 1035 (1625/1626) and died there in 1109 (1697) after having adopted Ṣūfism. He is credited with the authorship Of a hagiographical collection, but this has sometimes been disputed by his compatriots; it is entitled: al-Rawḍ al-ʿĀṭir al-Anfās bi-Ak̲h̲bār al-Ṣāliḥīn min Ahl Fās. According to al-Kattānī it was really the work oi Muḥammad al-ʿArabī…

Santa Maria De Algarve

(443 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, or St. Mary of the West, in Arabic S̲h̲antamarīyat al-G̲h̲arb (to distinguish it from Santa Maria of the East, in Arabic S̲h̲antamarīyat al-S̲h̲arḳ or S̲h̲antamarīyat Ibn Razīn, the modern Albarracin. a town in the province of Teruel in Spain; cf. above, i. 250 sq.), formerly a Muslim town in the southwestern part of al-Andalus of which the Portuguese have preserved the Arabic name Al-grave = al-G̲h̲arb (cf. above, i. 256b). S̲h̲antamarīyat al-G̲h̲arb is usually identified with Faro, a little Portuguese sea-port to the north-west of Cape St. Marie, on the railway …


(3,120 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Ar. Banū Naṣr, also sometimes called Banu ’l-Aḥmar, a Muslim dynasty which ruled over the kingdom of Granada in the north of Spain from 629 to 897 a. h. (1231—1491). While, thanks to the narratives of the contemporary Ibn al-Ḵh̲aṭīb [q. v.] and Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn [q. v.], we are very well informed about the history of the kingdom of the Naṣrids down to the second half of the xivth century, we have for the later period only a very few sources available in Arabic — and it is not always easy to fill the gaps from Christian sources —: a few pages of al-Maḳḳarī’s Nafḥ al-Ṭīb and the short anonymous chronicle…


(1,181 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Arabic Balansīya, a town in Spain, the third in size as regards population, which is over 250,000, lying on the east of the Peninsula, 3 miles from the Mediterranean and from its port, el Grao. It is connected with Madrid by 340 miles of railway; the distance as the crow flies is however only 188 miles. Valencia is the capital of the province of the same name and the diocese of an archbishop. Its situation is a striking one, in the centre of the fertile Huerta de Valencia which is watered by the Turia or Guadalaviar (Ar. Wādi ’l-abyaḍ, the “White River”). Unlike Cordova or Toledo, the old c…


(1,077 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Abū ’l-Ḳāsim b. Aḥmad b. ʿAlī b. Ibrāhīm, Moroccan statesman and historian of the xviiith century. Al-Zaiyānī, a member of the great Berber tribe of the Zaiyān ¶ in Central Morocco, was born in Fās in 1147 (1734—1735). He received his education in this city. At the age of 23, he accompanied his parents on the pilgrimage to Mecca and after an exciting journey, coming as well as going, which lasted over two years, he returned to Fās, where he obtained a position as secretary to the mak̲h̲zen [q. v.] of sulṭān Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh. His ability, his knowledge of Berber dialects and…


(154 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Arab. Bad̲j̲d̲j̲āna, formerly an important town in the south-east of Spain, to the north ofhlmeria [q. v.] (originally Marīyat Bad̲j̲d̲j̲ānd), from which it is about six miles distant. Towards the middle of the ninth century it was the centre of a kind of maritime republic founded by Andalusian sailors, who had also a colony on the Algerian coast at Tenes [q. v.]. It consisted of several quarters separated by gardens; becoming the capital of a kūra of the same name, Pechina was later supplanted by its neighbour Almeria, to which its inhabitants soon migrated. (E. Lévi-Provençal) Bibliogra…


(169 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, transcribed by Arab writers as , is the old name of a stronghold in the south of Spain the site of which is the modern Aguilar de la Frontera, a little town with about 13,000 inhabitants, in the province of Cordova, 12 miles N. W. of Cabra and of Lucena. The identification of Polei with Aguilar was made by Dozy on the strength of information supplied by a charter of 1258. The town which played a considerable part in the rising of the famous ʿOmar b. Ḥafṣūn [q. v.] against the Umaiyad emirs of Cordova is again mentioned in the xiith century by the geographer al-Idrīsī. The ruins of a fortress …


(220 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, in Arabie Ḏj̲azīrat Ṭarīf, “island of Ṭarīf”, from the name of the client of Mūsā b. Nuṣair, Abū Zurʿa Ṭarīf [q. v.] who landed there with the first Muslim force at the beginning of the conquest of Spain, a small town in Andalusia on the north shore of the Straits of Gibraltar, at the foot of a mountain range called the Sierra de la Luna, and almost the most southern part of the European continent. Tarifa, with Algeciras ( al-Ḏj̲azīrat al-Ḵh̲aḍrāʾ; cf. i., p. 277a) and Gibraltar (Ḏj̲abal Ṭāriḳ; cf. ii., p. 169 sq.) under Muslim rule had always considerable trade with the Moroccan ports…


(391 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, a Berber chief of the Mag̲h̲rib, who rebelled against Arab authority in 122 (739/40). He belonged to the tribe of the Maṭg̲h̲āra and the historians give him the surname of al-Ḥaḳir “the low-born” because he was of humble origin and before his rebellion had been a water-seller in the market of al-Ḳairawān. After the recall of Mūsā b. Nuṣair at the end of the first century a. h., rebellion began to smoulder in North Africa. ʿUmar b. Abd Allāh al-Murādī, governor of Tangier, and a grandson of ʿUḳba b. Nāfiʿ, Ḥabīb b. Abī ʿUbaida, governor of Sūs, were inflicting …


(499 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, in the texts of the middle ages, S̲h̲ālla, necropolis of the Marīnid Sulṭāns of Morocco, S. E. of the Almohad fortress of Ribāṭ al-Fatḥ (Rabat), 300 yards below the gate now called Bāb Zaʿīr. It occupies the site of an ancient Phoenician settlement, later the Roman Sala Colonia ¶ (cf. rabat), some distance above the mouth of the Wādī Bū-ragrag. With Salā (Sale) on the other side of the river and the Almohad Ribāṭ al-Fatḥ, it formed from quite early times a centre of mobilisation for the holy war. At the end of the xiiith century, the Marīnid princes decided to use this site for their dy…


(2,469 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Spanish el-Cid, the Cid, the name by which the most celebrated and the most popular of the heroes of Castillan chivalry is known; he played a preponderating political part in Muslim Spain of the second half of the eleventh century, and we can now gain an idea of his real personality by removing all the legendary matter that has grown up around his life and his exploits. It is to the Dutch scholar R. Dozy, that the honour is due of having established, as a result of his examination in 1844 of the manuscript of the Ḏh̲ak̲h̲īra of Ibn Bassām preserved in Gotha, that the story of the Crónica General of Al…
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