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al-S̲h̲ārāt

(289 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, from the Latin serra through the Spanish sierra , is the term applied by certain geographers of Muslim Spain to the mountains which stretch from east to west in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula. The best definition is given by Ibn Faḍl Allāh al-ʿUmarī. According to this author, the mountain range called al-S̲h̲ārāt stretches from the country behind Madīnat Sālim (Medinaceli) to Coimbra. This term therefore describes the mountains now known under the names of Sierra de Guadarram…

ʿAbd Allāh b. Buluggīn

(560 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
b. Bādīs b. Ḥabūs b. Zīrī , third and last ruler of the kingdom of Granada, of the Ṣinhād̲jī Berber family of the Banū Zīrī [see zīrīds of spain ]. Born in 447/1056, he was appointed at the death of his father Buluggīn Sayf al-Dawla, in 456/1064, as the presumptive heir of his grandfather Bādīs b. Ḥabūs. He succeeded him on the throne of Granada, while his brother Tamīm al-Muʿizz became independent ruler of Malaga. His reign consisted of a long series of troubles inside his kingdom, of armed conflicts …

Abū Ḥafṣ ʿUmar b. Yaḥyā al-Hintātī

(483 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
(an Arabic relative adjective formed from the name of a Berber tribe of the Anti-Atlas in Morocco, the Hintāta), or, according to the more current Berber form, Īntī, the chief companion of the Almohade Mahdī, Ibn Tūmart [ q.v.], and the most active supporter of the dynasty of the Muʾminids (see ʿabd al-muʾmin ). It was his own grandson, the amīr Abū Zakarīyāʾ Yaḥyā b. ʿAbd al-Wāḥid who, in 634/1236-37, renounced his allegiance to the Muʾminids in Ifrīḳiya and founded, with himself and his descendants as rulers, the dynasty of the Ḥafṣids [ q.v.], which was to be called after this their …

Afṭasids

(982 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
( banu ’l-afṭas ), small Hispano-Muslim dynasty of the 5th/11th century, which reigned during the period of the mulūk al-ṭawāʾif of al-Andalus over a vast territory in the western part of the Iberian peninsula, with Badajoz (Baṭalyaws) as its capital. On the dismemberment of the caliphate of Cordova, the "Lower March" of al-Andalus ( al-t̲h̲ag̲h̲r al-adnā ), consisting of the middle valley of the Guadiana (Wādī Ānā) and the central portion of modern Portugal, passed into the possession of a liberated slave of al-Ḥakam II, Sābūr,…

ʿAbd Allāh b. Muḥammad

(237 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
b. ʿabd al-raḥmān al-Marwānī , seventh Umayyad Amīr of Cordova. He succeeded his brother al-Mund̲h̲ir on the latter’s death before Bobastro, centre of ʿUmar b. Hafṣūn’s rebellion, on 15 Ṣafar 275/29 June 888. The circumstances of al-Mund̲h̲ir’s death arouse the suspicion that the new sovereign was not quite innocent of it. At his accession, ʿAbd Allāh, born in 229/844, was forty-four years old. His reign, which lasted for a quarter of a century, until his death on 1 Rabīʿ I 300/16 Oct. 912, was described in detail by the chronicler Ibn Ḥayyān, in that part of his Muḳtabis

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Marwān

(410 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
b. Yūnus , called ibn al-Ḏj̲illīḳī ("son of the Galician"), famous chief of insurgents in the West of al-Andalus in the second half of the 3rd/9th century. He belonged to a family of neo-Muslims ( muwalladūn ), originating from the North of Portugal and established in Merida. Although his father had been governor of this town on behalf of the sovereigns of Cordova, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān revolted against the Umayyad Amīr Muḥammad I in 254/868. The Amīr besieged him and forced him, after the capitulation of the city, …

ʿAbbās b. Firnās

(322 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
b. Wardūs , Abu ’l-Ḳāsim , Andalusi scholar and poet, belonging to the entourage of the Hispano-Umayyad amīrs al-Ḥakam I, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān II and Muḥammad I, in the 3rd/9th century. No biographical data about him are available, and we only know that he was an Umayyad mawlā of Berber origin, that he came from the kūra of Tākurunnā, i.e. the district of Ronda, and that he died in 274/887. His strong personality is now fully manifest, thanks to the newly found volume of Ibn Ḥayyān’s al-Muḳtabis concerning the Andalusi amirate, where a long passage is devoted to …

S̲h̲arḳāwa

(514 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
or S̲h̲erḳāwa , the common ethnie designation of a Marabout group in central Morocco, belonging to the S̲h̲ād̲h̲ilī-D̲j̲azūlī brotherhood through the intermediary of the mystic Abū Fāris ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz al-Tabbāʿ [ q.v.]. The singular is S̲h̲arḳāwī , synonym of s̲h̲arḳī ( s̲h̲argī , pl. s̲h̲rāga ), a geographical ethnic name (cf. on the other hand Tādilī , ethnic from Tādlā confined to the s̲h̲urafāʾ of this name, while the geographical ethnic is Tādlāwī ). The principal zāwiya of the S̲h̲arḳāwa is in the town ¶ of Abu ’l-D̲j̲aʿd (modern form, Boujad), in the Tādlā, between the M…

Maysara

(595 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, a Berber chief of the Mag̲h̲rib, who rebelled against Arab authority in 122/739-40. He belonged to the tribe of the Maṭg̲h̲āra/Madg̲h̲āra and the historians give him the surname of al-Ḥaḳīr "the low-born" because he was of humble origin and had been before his rebellion a water-seller in the market of al-Ḳayrawān. After the recall of Mūsā b. Nuṣayr [ q.v.] at the end of the 1st/opening of the 8th century in North Africa, under the influence of Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲ite propaganda, incited by the Arabs’ financial exactions, ʿUmar b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Murādī, governor o…

ʿAbd al-Muʾmin

(2,378 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
b. ʿAlī b. ʿAlwī b. Yaʿlā al-Kūmī Abū Muḥammad , successor of the Mahdī Ibn Tūmart [ q.v.] in the leadership of the reformist movement of tawḥīd , known as the Almohad movement (see al-muwaḥḥidūn ), and founder of the Muʾminid dynasty, which in the West, in the 6th/12th century, took the place of the kingdoms of Ifrīḳiya and of the Almoravid dynasty of Morocco and of Spain, with its capital at Marrākus̲h̲ [ q.v.]. The history of the origins of the Almohad movement and of the reign of ʿAbd al-Muʾmin has been illuminated and in large measure reinterpreted since the prese…

al-Maʾmūn

(659 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Abu ’l-ʿAlāʾ Idrīs b. yaʿḳūb al-Manṣūr b. Yūsuf b. ʿAbd al-Muʾmin b. ʿAlī , ninth sovereign of the Almohad dynasty, born in 581/1185-6 in Málaga, of the marriage of his father with the Spanish princess Ṣafiyya, daughter of the amīr Abū ʿAbd Allāh b. Mardanīs̲h̲ (Martinez). The Arab historians pay high tributes to the good qualities of this prince, who was very well-read, and equally well-versed in profane and religious learning. At a time when the Almohad dynasty was much troubled by the s…

Āg̲h̲māt

(573 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, a small town in Southern Morocco, about 25 m. south of Marrākus̲h̲, on a small water-course Wādī Ūrīka or Wādī Āg̲h̲māt, at the edge of the Great Atlas range (the Ḏj̲abal Daran of the Middle Ages). From the 5th/11th century the name of this place, according to the statement of the geographer Abū ʿUbayd al-Bakrī, applied to two distinct settlements 1½ m. apart, namely Āg̲h̲māt an-Waylān (the spelling given by al-Baydāq, Doc. inédits d’hist. almohade ) or Āg̲h̲māt of the Aylān (a Berber tribe: arabice Haylāna) and Āg̲h̲māt Ūrīka, or Āg…

al-S̲h̲arrāṭ

(184 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
(“the manufacturer of string from palm-fibre”, s̲h̲rīṭ ), Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. ʿAys̲h̲ūn , son of a mud̲j̲āhid , slain in battle which the Spaniards at al-Maʿmūra (al-Mahdiyya = San Miguel de Ultramar) was born at Fās in 1035/1625-6 and died there in 1109/1697 after having adopted Ṣūfism. He is credited with the authorship of a hagiographical collection, but this has sometimes been disputed by his compatriots; this is al-Rawḍ al-ʿāṭir al-anfās bi-ak̲h̲bār al-ṣāliḥīn min ahl Fās . According to al-Kattānī, it was really the work of Muḥa…

ʿAbd al-Malik b. Ḳaṭan

(256 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
al-Fihrī , governor of al-Andalus. He succeeded in this office ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAbd Allāh al-G̲h̲āfiḳī [ q.v.], when the latter was killed during his expedition into Gaul, 114/732. He had to surrender his office, in 116/734, to ʿUḳba b. al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ al-Salūlī, but resumed it in 123/740. Belonging to the Medinese party, he evinced a rather unfavourable attitude towards the caliph of Damascus. Almost at once, however, he was confronted with grave difficulties caused by the Berbers who revolted in the Iberi…

ʿAbbādids

(2,380 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
( Banū ʿAbbād ), dynasty of Arab race which reigned for most of the 5th/11th century over the S.-W. of al-Andalus, with its capital at Seville [cf. is̲h̲bīlya ]. It was at the moment of the disintegration of the Caliphate of Cordova and of the political dismemberment of the country by the petty kings known as the taifas ( mulūk al-ṭawāʾif ) that the ḳāḍī of Seville, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Muḥammad b. ʿAbbād, succeeded in being proclaimed ruler in 414/1013. The son of a celebrated Spanish-Muslim jurist of Lak̲h̲mid origin, Ismāʿīl b. ʿAbbād, he began, on first seizing …

Mak̲h̲lad

(200 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, Banū , a family of famous Cordovan jurists who, from father to son, during ten generations, distinguished themselves in the study of fiḳh . The eponymous ancestor of the family was Mak̲h̲lad b. Yazīd, who was

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Ḥabīb b. Abī ʿUbayda (or ʿAbda) al-Fihrī

(382 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, great-grandson of the famous tābiʿ ʿUḳba b. Nāfiʿ, independent governor of Ifrīḳiya at the end of the Umayyad caliphate. His father, Ḥabīb, had sent expeditions against the Sūs, Morocco and Sicily, in which ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, still a youth, took an active part. He was one of the survivors of the bloody defeat inflicted by the ¶ Berbers upon the regular Arab troops in 123/741, in which his father and the governor, Kult̲h̲ūm b. ʿIyāḍ, lost their lives. He crossed over to Spain, but fearing for his life, returned in 127/745 to Ifrīḳiya, where he revolted…

Tamgrūt

(481 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, important town in the Wādī Darʿa (Dra), in the south of Morocco and the site of the mother zāwiya of the religious brotherhood of the Nāṣiriyya [ q.v.]. It is a fair-sized town with houses of red clay, surrounded by groves of palm and fruit trees, on the left bank of the Wādī Darʿa, which is here 120 to 250 feet wide but of no depth and runs between hills about 300 yards apart. Tamgrūt is surrounded by low walls pierced by 4 gates: in the north, Fumm (class, fam “mouth”) al-Sūḳ, in the northeast, Fumm Tāʾurīrt, in the southwest, Bāb al-Ri…

al-Mahdiyya

(933 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
, formerly called al-Maʿmūra , a town of Morocco, on the Atlantic coast at the mouth of the Wādī Sabū (Sebou), built on a rocky promontory which dominates the valley of the river. Situated on the southern extremity of the plain of G̲h̲arb and 20 miles to the north-east of Salé (Salā), it enjoys a geographical position of the first importance. A port has been created here for ships of heavy tonnage, which cannot sail up the Wādī Sabū as far as the river port of Ḳnīṭra (al-Ḳunayṭira, Kénitra [see ḳanṭara ]) situated 6 miles as the crow flies from the mouth of the river.…

Akanṣūs

(314 words)

Author(s): Lévi-Provençal, E.
abū ʿabd allāh muḥammad b. aḥmad , Moroccan historian and man of letters originating from the Berber tribe of Idā ū-Kansūs which inhabited Sūs in southern Morocco, where he was born in 1211/1797. He studied at Fez under teachers of repute, and then obtained a post at the S̲h̲arīfīan court as secretary. Promoted to the rank of vizier in 1236/1820, he was entrusted by the Sulṭān Mawlāy Sulaymān (Mūlāy Slīmān) with several official missions, but lost his post on the ¶ latter’s death (1238/1822). He retired to Marrākus̲h̲, where he devoted his time to the composition of poetica…
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