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Devil (Satan)

(4,433 words)

Author(s): Lange, Christian
In Islam, the Devil (Satan) is not, as a rule, seen as the source of absolute evil operating independently of God. His role in Muslim exegetical, mythical, ethical, mystical, and literary traditions is rich and variegated. This entry deals with the Qurʾānic image of the Devil; the mythic biography of the Devil as fleshed out in exegetical literature and in the ḥadīth; the Devil’s role in ethical and ascetic literature; the Devil as muse in poetry and music; the Devil as tragic figure in Muslim mystical thought; and modern literary framings of the Devil, u…
Date: 2018-08-16

Capital punishment

(4,000 words)

Author(s): Lange, Christian
Capital punishment in Islamic law is specified for the crimes of apostasy, illicit sexual relations, brigandage, and intentional homicide. Despite the fact that the legal doctrine of the qāḍī’s “discretionary punishment” (taʿzīr) generally precludes the death penalty, Muslim jurists gradually concluded that the state may also execute people for reasons of expediency (siyāsa). In classical Islamic political theory also, siyāsa served to justify capital punishment, and most executions in Islamic history have been justified on the grounds of siyāsa. In modern times, executio…
Date: 2018-07-12

Hell

(3,241 words)

Author(s): Lange, Christian
Hell has been a source of anxiety in Islam, as it has in many other religions, and the tendency to conceive of it as a part of the material world, complete with its own detailed topography, is strong. Muslim conceptions of Hell range from the traditional picture, with its graphically recounted other-worldly punishments, to a spiritual and personalised interpretation. This entry deals with (1) the tradition of fear of Hell in Islam, as a punishment for major sins, (2) theological reflections and …
Date: 2018-07-12

Barzakh

(2,240 words)

Author(s): Lange, Christian
Barzakh is a term used in Islam for an intermediate state of human existence between death and resurrection. 1. Barzakh in the Qurʾān and tafsīr In two verses in the Qurʾān (25:53, 55:20), barzakh (perhaps from Persian farsakh, a measure of distance; Jeffery, 77) means a barrier between two seas. It is from a third verse that the meaning of barzakh as an intermediate state between life in this world (al-dunyā) and the next world (al-ākhira) is derived: dead sinners plead with God to return them to life so that they can perform good deeds and thus regain His favour, but…
Date: 2018-07-12

Expiation

(3,016 words)

Author(s): Lange, Christian
Expiation (kaffāra, pl. kaffārāt) is an expiatory or propitiatory act performed to make amends for a sin, crime, or other wrong action. 1. Origins and etymology There has been debate about how closely the Qurʾānic concept of kaffāra is related to the biblical concept of expiation. While Margoliouth, Jeffery, and Paret all derive the word from Hebrew kappārā, Chelhod points out that in the Qurʾān, kaffāra is not primarily a blood sacrifice, as kappārā is in the Levitical system. Chelhod claims that the root k-f-r is “genuinely Arabic,” meaning “to cover up a thing or person so t…
Date: 2018-07-12

Immolation

(1,780 words)

Author(s): Lange, Christian
Immolation, in the sense of punitive burning either as a form of, or following upon, capital punishment, was discussed controversially from as early as the second/eighth century but continued to be applied throughout Islamic history. 1. Formative period The early caliphs and their representatives are reported to have committed their enemies to the flames, thus continuing the persistent use of the punishment in Judeo-Christian and Roman late antiquity (cf. Marsham, 114–8). The Companions of the Prophet Muʿādh b. Jabal and Abū Mūsā al…
Date: 2018-07-12

Prostitution

(1,415 words)

Author(s): Lange, Christian
1. In prostitution, → body and → sexuality become merchandise. Like religion, prostitution is the expression of psychosocial needs on the part of societies and the individuals living in them. An intimation of this is, among other things, the myth of the world's ‘oldest profession.’ From the Christian perspective, it does not seem likely that the ‘high spiritual’ will be bound up with the ‘low bodily’—especially in the area of human sexuality. Today there are contrary tendencies, however, that, w…

Machu Picchu/Cuzco

(1,016 words)

Author(s): Lange, Christian
1. The capital of the extinct Inca Empire, Cuzco, lies 3,326 m above sea level, in the southern Andes of Peru. Since the invasion of Spanish mercenaries under the leadership of Francisco Pizarro in 1532, and the ensuing colonization by European powers, the plundered city continuously waned in importance. Today, however, with some 300,000 inhabitants, it is rising to the status of an important center of trade and tourism. In its vicinity, accessible by train, lie the ruins of the Inca temple-city Machu Picchu. Cuzco—the City 2. a) Cuzco was both the strategic and political center …

Consolidation de l'État national. Problème de l'internationalisme. (013)

(2,203 words)

Author(s): Lange, Christian L.
This chapter is part of: Histoire de la doctrine pacifique et de son influence sur le développement du droit international (Volume 013) Collected Courses of the Hague Academy of International Law (Volume 013) Publication Editor: Hague Academy of International Law Volume: 13 Brill | Nijhoff, Leiden | Boston, 1926 Lange, Christian L.

Histoire de la doctrine pacifique et de son influence sur le développement du droit international (Volume 013)

(349 words)

Author(s): Lange, Christian L.
Collected Courses of the Hague Academy of International Law Volume: 13 Brill | Nijhoff, Leiden | Boston, 1926 This course contains the following chapters: Matière préliminaire pp. 171-174 AVANT-PROPOS pp. 175-175 Définition des termes pp. 176-188 Idées pacifistes de l'Antiquité et do Moyen âge. pp. 189-199 Idées d'une organisation internationale. pp. 200-215 Transition aux temps modernes; âge de la désorganisation, pp. 216-222 Pacifisme des humanistes chrétiens pp. 223-231 Débuts de l'Internationalisme constructif : Emeric Crucé, le « grand dessein » de Sully. pp. 232-248 …

Matière préliminaire (013)

(619 words)

Author(s): Lange, Christian L.
This chapter is part of: Histoire de la doctrine pacifique et de son influence sur le développement du droit international (Volume 013) Collected Courses of the Hague Academy of International Law (Volume 013) Publication Editor: Hague Academy of International Law Volume: 13 Brill | Nijhoff, Leiden | Boston, 1926 Chapter sections   NOTICE BIOGRAPHIQUE pp. 173   PRINCIPALES PUBLICATIONS pp. 173 Lange, Christian L.

Le règlement de 1814-1818. Système européen et système mondial. (013)

(2,691 words)

Author(s): Lange, Christian L.
This chapter is part of: Histoire de la doctrine pacifique et de son influence sur le développement du droit international (Volume 013) Collected Courses of the Hague Academy of International Law (Volume 013) Publication Editor: Hague Academy of International Law Volume: 13 Brill | Nijhoff, Leiden | Boston, 1926 Lange, Christian L.

Les Révolutions d'Amérique et de France (013)

(4,280 words)

Author(s): Lange, Christian L.
This chapter is part of: Histoire de la doctrine pacifique et de son influence sur le développement du droit international (Volume 013) Collected Courses of the Hague Academy of International Law (Volume 013) Publication Editor: Hague Academy of International Law Volume: 13 Brill | Nijhoff, Leiden | Boston, 1926 Lange, Christian L.

Progrès du droit international. (013)

(2,728 words)

Author(s): Lange, Christian L.
This chapter is part of: Histoire de la doctrine pacifique et de son influence sur le développement du droit international (Volume 013) Collected Courses of the Hague Academy of International Law (Volume 013) Publication Editor: Hague Academy of International Law Volume: 13 Brill | Nijhoff, Leiden | Boston, 1926 Lange, Christian L.

Idées d'une organisation internationale. (013)

(6,355 words)

Author(s): Lange, Christian L.
This chapter is part of: Histoire de la doctrine pacifique et de son influence sur le développement du droit international (Volume 013) Collected Courses of the Hague Academy of International Law (Volume 013) Publication Editor: Hague Academy of International Law Volume: 13 Brill | Nijhoff, Leiden | Boston, 1926 Lange, Christian L.

Amos Comenius Mouvement des Académies : Leibniz. Franc-Maçonnerie. (013)

(4,335 words)

Author(s): Lange, Christian L.
This chapter is part of: Histoire de la doctrine pacifique et de son influence sur le développement du droit international (Volume 013) Collected Courses of the Hague Academy of International Law (Volume 013) Publication Editor: Hague Academy of International Law Volume: 13 Brill | Nijhoff, Leiden | Boston, 1926 Lange, Christian L.

Transition aux temps modernes; âge de la désorganisation, (013)

(2,794 words)

Author(s): Lange, Christian L.
This chapter is part of: Histoire de la doctrine pacifique et de son influence sur le développement du droit international (Volume 013) Collected Courses of the Hague Academy of International Law (Volume 013) Publication Editor: Hague Academy of International Law Volume: 13 Brill | Nijhoff, Leiden | Boston, 1926 Lange, Christian L.

Immanuel Kant, philosophe de l'Internationalisme (013)

(3,889 words)

Author(s): Lange, Christian L.
This chapter is part of: Histoire de la doctrine pacifique et de son influence sur le développement du droit international (Volume 013) Collected Courses of the Hague Academy of International Law (Volume 013) Publication Editor: Hague Academy of International Law Volume: 13 Brill | Nijhoff, Leiden | Boston, 1926 Lange, Christian L.

Pacifisme et internationalisme dans la seconde moitié du XIX e siècle et aux débuts du XX e. (013)

(6,749 words)

Author(s): Lange, Christian L.
This chapter is part of: Histoire de la doctrine pacifique et de son influence sur le développement du droit international (Volume 013) Collected Courses of the Hague Academy of International Law (Volume 013) Publication Editor: Hague Academy of International Law Volume: 13 Brill | Nijhoff, Leiden | Boston, 1926 Lange, Christian L.

Pacifisme et internationalisme, 1815-1856 (013)

(7,328 words)

Author(s): Lange, Christian L.
This chapter is part of: Histoire de la doctrine pacifique et de son influence sur le développement du droit international (Volume 013) Collected Courses of the Hague Academy of International Law (Volume 013) Publication Editor: Hague Academy of International Law Volume: 13 Brill | Nijhoff, Leiden | Boston, 1926 Lange, Christian L.
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