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Ḏj̲amāl al-Dīn Aḳsarayī

(408 words)

Author(s): Mélikoff, I.
, a Turkish philosopher and theologian, who was born and died (791/1389?) at Aḳsaray. According to tradition Ḏj̲amāl al-Dīn Meḥmed, who during his lifetime was known by the name of D̲j̲amālī, is said to have been the great-grandson of Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn Rāzī. He was appointed instructor at the madrasa of Zind̲j̲irli, at Aḳsaray, after learning by heart the Ṣaḥāḥ , al-D̲j̲awharī’s Arabic lexicographical work, an indispensable requirement of anyone seeking to obtain this appointment. Like the ancient Greek philosophers he split up his ve…

G̲h̲āzī

(1,769 words)

Author(s): Mélikoff, I.
, Arabic active participle (pi. g̲h̲uzāt ) used to indicate those who took part in a razzia [see g̲h̲azw ], later in a g̲h̲azwa [ q.v.] “raid against the infidels”. This name later grew to be a title of honour reserved for those who distinguished themselves in the g̲h̲azwa, and it became part of the title of certain Muslim princes, such as the amīrs of Anatolia and more particularly the first Ottoman sultans. Corporations of g̲h̲āzīs are attested in Transoxiana and Ḵh̲urāsān from the Sāmānid period; these were wandering bands who obtained their living chiefly from booty won in the g̲h̲azwa, an…

Deñizli̇

(1,127 words)

Author(s): Mélikoff, I.
, chief town of the wilāyet of the same name, in south-western Anatolia. Situated in a fertile plain which has been inhabited since the earliest times, Deflizli in the 14th century replaced Lādīḳ, the ancient Laodiceia ad Lycum , whose ruins stand at Eski Ḥiṣār, on the Çürük Şu, a tributary of the Büyük Menderes, near the railway station of Gond̲j̲ali, 9 km. from Deñizli. Built in the 3rd century B.C. by the Seleucid Antiochus II on the site of the ancient Diospolis (Pliny, v, 105), Laodicaea controlled an impo…

D̲j̲unayd

(406 words)

Author(s): Mélikoff, I.
, s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ , the 4th Ṣafawid s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ in line of descent from S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Ṣafī al-Dīn Isḥāḳ, the founder of the Ṣafawid ṭarīḳa , succeeded his father Ibrāhīm as head of the Ṣafawid order at Ardabīl in 851/1447-8; the date of his birth is not known. D̲j̲unayd for the first time organized the Ṣafawid murīds on a military footing and, unlike his predecessors, clearly aimed at temporal power as well as religious authority. His political ambitions at once brought him into conflict with D̲j̲ahāns̲h̲āh [ q.v.], the Ḳara-Ḳoyunlu ruler of Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān, who ordered him to disband …

Aydi̊̊n-Og̲h̲lu

(540 words)

Author(s): Mélikoff, I.
, a Turkomān dynasty which reigned from 708 to 829 (1308 to 1425) over the emirate of the same name. Aydi̊n-og̲h̲lu Meḥmed Beg (708-734/1308-1334), ṣubas̲h̲i̊ of the emir of Germiyān, separated from him in the early years of the 8th/14th century and started to make war on his own account, associating himself with Sasa Beg, son-in-law of the emir of Mentes̲h̲e. After having conquered Birgi, Ayaṣoluḳ and Keles, Sasa turned against his former ally and was defeated and put to death by him in 708/1308.…

al-Baṭṭāl

(769 words)

Author(s): Mélikoff, I.
( sayyid baṭṭāl g̲h̲āzī ), a champion of the Arabs in the wars against Byzantium in the Umayyad period, is transformed, in the Turkish romance devoted to his adventures, into a here of the ʿAbbāsid period. Al-Baṭṭāl thus became the contemporary of the amīr of Melitene, ʿAmr b. ʿUbayd Allāh al-Aḳtaʿ (d. 249/863) and was incorporated into the epic cycle of Melitene. After the conquest of Melitene by the amīr Dānis̲h̲mend in 495/1102, the Turks adopted the epic of Melitene, incorporating it in their own epic cycles and tracing their national he…

Dānis̲h̲mendids

(1,717 words)

Author(s): Mélikoff, I.
, a Turcoman dynasty which reigned in northern Cappadocia from the last quarter of the 5th/11th century until 573/1178. The origins and first conquests of its founder, Amīr Dānis̲h̲mend, are obscure. Appearing in Cappadocia during the years of anarchy which followed the death, in 781/1085, of the Sald̲j̲ūḳid Sulaymān b. Kutlumi̊s̲h̲, he became involved in the events of the First Crusade. When historians became interested in him they resorted to legends or imagination to fill the gaps in their kn…

Ewrenos Og̲h̲ullari̊

(883 words)

Author(s): Mélikoff, I.
G̲h̲āzī Evrenos had seven sons, whose names are given by the chronicles and the waḳf deeds, and several daug̲h̲ters, one of ¶ whom married the Grand Vizier Čandarli̊ Ḵh̲alīl Pas̲h̲a and became the mother of Bāyezīd II’s Grand Vizier, Čandarli̊ Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a. Two of his sons became famous in history, ʿAlī and ʿĪsā. ʿAlī was at first head of the aḳi̊nd̲j̲i̊s under the command of his father, then sand̲j̲ak begi. During the interregnum he adopted the cause of Mūsā Čelebī, and was sent by him to join his father who was living in retirement at Yenid̲j̲e-i Vardar; but…

Og̲h̲uz-Nāma

(1,047 words)

Author(s): Mélikoff, I.
, a term which designates the epic tradition of the Og̲h̲uz [see g̲h̲uzz ], Turkish tribes mentioned for the first time in the Ork̲h̲on [ q.v.] inscriptions. After the fall of the empire of the Kök or Celestial Turks (7th-8th centuries), the Og̲h̲uz tribes migrated westwards. From the 8th and 9th centuries onwards, they are found installed in the basin of the middle and upper Syr Darya, between Lakes Aral and Balkas̲h̲ in the modern Kazak̲h̲stan Republic, where they formed tribal confederations. The Sald̲j̲ūḳs, who invade…

Ewrenos

(1,021 words)

Author(s): Mélikoff, I.
, ( G̲h̲azī Evrenos ) makes his appearance in history after the emirate of Ḳarasi̊ had been occupied by the Ottomans (after 735/1334-5), and given by sultan Ork̲h̲ān as tīmār to his eldest son Süleymān Pas̲h̲a, into whose service came the begs of the amīrs of Ḳarasi̊, Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī İl-Begi, Ed̲j̲e Beg, G̲h̲āzī Fāḍil and Evrenos. According to the genealogical tree of the family, confirmed by a deed of waḳf (published by Ö. L. Barkan, in Vakıflar Dergisi , ii, Ankara 1942, 342-3), the father of Evrenos is said to have been ʿĪsā Beg, later called Prangi because he died in…

Germiyān-Og̲h̲ullari̊̊

(1,451 words)

Author(s): Mélikoff, I.
Germiyān, at first the name of a Turkoman tribe, was afterwards applied to a family, then to an amīrate. Mentioned from the 6th/12th century in the history of the Anatolian Turks, the Germiyān appeared for the first time in 636-7/1239 in the reign of the Sald̲j̲ūḳid G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn Kayk̲h̲usraw II; at this time the Germiyān Muẓaffar al-Dīn b. ʿAlī S̲h̲īr, installed in the region of Malaṭya, was sent at the head of a troop of Kurds and Germiyān against the Turkoman rebel …

Deñizli̊

(1,065 words)

Author(s): Mélikoff, I.
, chef-lieu du wilāyet du même nom, au S.-O. de l’Anatolie. Située dans une plaine fertile habitée dès la haute antiquité, Deftizli a supplanté, au XIVe siècle, Lādiḳ, l’antique Laodiceia ad Lycum, dont les ruines se trouvent à Eski Ḥiṣār, sur le Çürük Su, affluent du Büyük Menderes, près de la station de chemin de fer de Goncali, à 9 km. de Den̄zli. Construite au IIIe siècle av. J.-C. par le Séleucide Antiochus II sur le site de l’antique Diospolis (Pline, V, 105), Laodicée, qui commandait un important carrefour de routes, comptait, à l’époque romaine, parmi…

Ḥamza Beg

(347 words)

Author(s): Mélikoff, I.
(Imām), deuxième imām du Dāg̲h̲istān, chef du mouvement populaire, politico-religieux, qui ébranla le Caucase du Nord de 1832 à 1859 et qui est connu sous le nom de Murīdisme, d’après l’idéologie religieuse qui lui donna naissance. Ce mouvement avait pour base les courants mystiques musulmans venus de Buk̲h̲ārā, en particulier ceux que propageaient les Naḳs̲h̲bendis [ q.v.], mais il utilisa les dogmes religieux dans des buts politiques et fut étroitement lié à l’idée pratique de la guerre sainte. Il fut une conséquence des expéditions punitives russe…

Lāle Devri

(3,155 words)

Author(s): Mélikoff, I.
, «le Siècle des Tulipes», nom donné à l’une des plus brillantes époques de l’empire ottoman, correspondant à la deuxième ¶ moitié du règne d’Aḥmed III (1703-30 [ q.v.]) et plus exactement aux treize années du vizirat de Nevs̲h̲ehirli Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.]. La tulipe, qui donna son nom à cette époque, avait été exportée de Turquie en Autriche par Ogier Ghislain de Busbecq, ambassadeur de Ferdinand Ier de Habsbourg (1503-64) auprès du sultan, mais ce fut en Hollande que sa culture fut développée, grâce au botaniste Charles de l’Écluse (C. Clusius) (Arras 1526-…

Lāle Devri

(3,343 words)

Author(s): Mélikoff, I.
, “The Tulip Period”, the name given to one of the most colourful periods of the Ottoman Empire, corresponding to the second half of the reign of Aḥmed III (1703-30 [ q.v.]) and more precisely to the thirteen years of the vizierate of Nevs̲h̲ehirli Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.]. The tulip which gave its name to this era had been exported from Turkey to Austria by Ogier Ghislain de Busbecq, the ambassador of Ferdinand I of Habsburg (1503-64) at the court of the Sultan, but it was in Holland that its cultivation was developed, through the efforts of…

Ḥamza Beg

(359 words)

Author(s): Mélikoff, I.
( imām ), second imām of Dāg̲h̲istān, leader of the popular politico-religious movement which disturbed the northern Caucasus from 1832 to 1859 and which is known as Murīdism , from the religious ideology from which it arose. This movement was based on Muslim mystical influences which originated in Buk̲h̲ārā, in particular those propagated by the Naḳs̲h̲bandīs [ q.v.], but made use of religious dogma for political ends and was closely linked with the practical conception of the Holy War. It was a consequence of the Russian punitive expeditions in the …

Dānis̲h̲mendides

(1,687 words)

Author(s): Mélikoff, I.
, dynastie turcomane qui régna en Cappadoce septentrionale depuis le dernier quart du Ve/XIe siècle jusqu’en 573/1178. Les origines et les premières conquêtes de son fondateur, Amīr Dānis̲h̲mend, sont obscures. Apparu en Cappadoce pendant les années d’anarchie qui suivirent la mort du Sald̲j̲ūḳide Sulaymān b. Ḳutlumi̊s̲h̲, survenue en 478/1085, il se trouva mêlé aux événements de la Première Croisade. Quand les historiens s’intéressèrent à lui, ils firent appel à la légende ou à la fantaisie pour combler les…

Ḏj̲amāl al-Dīn Aḳsarayī

(382 words)

Author(s): Mélikoff, I.
, philosophe et théologien turc, né et mort (791/1389?) à Aḳsaray. ¶ Selon une tradition, Ḏj̲amāl al-dīn Meḥmed, connu de son vivant sous le surnom de Ḏj̲amālī, aurait été l’arrière petit-fils de Fak̲h̲r al-dīn al-Rāzī. Il fut nommé professeur à la madrasa de Zind̲j̲irli à Aḳsaray, ayant appris par cœur l’ouvrage lexicographique arabe, le Ṣaḥāḥ d’al-Ḏj̲awharī, condition requise pour briguer ce poste. A la manière des philosophes de la Grèce antique, il avait divisé ses élèves fort nombreux en trois classes: ceux de la première classe, appelés mes̲h̲āʾiyyūn (péripatéticiens), se ra…

al-Baṭṭāl

(756 words)

Author(s): Mélikoff, I.
, (Sayyid Baṭṭāl G̲h̲āzī), champion des Arabes à l’époque umayyade dans les guerres contre Byzance est, par suite d’un transfert épique, un héros de l’époque ʿabbāside dans le roman turc consacré à ses aventures; devenu le contemporain de I’ amīr de Mélitène, ʿAmr b. ʿUbayd Allah al-Aḳṭaʿ (m. 249/863), il fut incorporé dans le cycle épique de Mélitène. Après la conquête de cette ville par l’ amir Dānis̲h̲mend, en 495/1102, les Turcs ont repris l’épopée de Mélitène, en l’incorporant à leurs propres récits épiques et en rattachant leurs héros nationaux au légend…

Ewrenos

(1,005 words)

Author(s): Mélikoff, I.
(G̲h̲āzī Evrenos) apparaît dans l’histoire après l’occupation de l’émirat de Karasî par les Ottomans à partir de 735/1334 -5, émirat que le sultan Ork̲h̲ān donna en tīmār à son fils aine Süleymān Pas̲h̲a au service duquel entrèrent les begs des amīrs de Ḳarasi̊, Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī İl-Begi, Ed̲j̲e Beg, G̲h̲āzī Fāḍil et Evrenos. D’après l’arbre généalogique de la famille, confirmé par un acte de waḳf (publié par Ö. L. Barkan, Vakiflar Dergisi, II, Ankara 1942, 342 -3), le père d’Evrenos aurait été ʿĪsā Beg, surnommé plus tard Prangi, parce qu’il était mort dans le village de ce nom; son …
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