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al-Rifāʿī

(1,208 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D.S.
, Aḥmad b. ʿAli , Abu ’l-ʿAbbas, S̲h̲āfiʿī faḳīh by training and founder of the Rifāʿiyya [ q.v.] dervish order. He was born in Muḥarram 500/September 1106 (or, according to other authorities, in Rad̲j̲ab 512/October-November 1118) at Ḳaryat Ḥasan, a village of the Baṭāʾiḥ or marshlands of lower ʿIrāḳ [see al-baṭīḥa ] between Baṣra and Wāsiṭ, whence the nisba sometimes given to him of al-Baṭāʾiḥī, and he died at Umm ʿUbayda in the same region on 22 D̲j̲umādā I 578/23 October 1182 (see Ibn K̲h̲allikān, ed. ʿAbbās, i, 171-2, tr. de Slane, i, 152-3). The nisba al-Rifāʿī…

Raḥmāniyya

(1,204 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D.S.
, Algerian Ṣūfī order ( ṭarīḳa ) called after Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Gas̲h̲tulī al-D̲j̲urd̲j̲urī al-Azharī Abū Ḳabrayn, who died in 1208/1793-4. It is a branch of the K̲h̲alwatiyya [ q.v.] and is said to have at one time been called Bakriyya after Muṣṭafā al-Bakrī al-S̲h̲āmī. At Nafṭa [ q.v.], in Tunisia, and some other places it is called ʿAzzūziyya after Muṣṭafā b. Muḥammad b. ʿAzzūz. Life of the founder. His family belonged to the tribe Ayt Smāʿīl, part of the Gas̲h̲tula confederation in the Ḳābiliyya D̲j̲urd̲j̲ura; having studied at his home, and th…

Wahhābīya

(4,799 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, Islāmic community founded by Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Wahhāb (1115-1201 = 1703-1787). This name was given to the community by its opponents in the founder’s lifetime, and is used by Europeans; it is not used by its members in Arabia, who call themselves Muwaḥḥidūn “unitarians” and their system ( ṭarīḳa) “Muḥammadan”; they regard themselves as Sunnīs, following the school of Ibn Ḥanbal, as interpreted by Ibn Taimīya, who attacked the cult of saints in many of his writings, especially in a Risāla condemning the visitation of tombs (in his Rasāʾil, Cairo 1323). § 1. Life of the Founder. He w…

al-Rifāʿī

(1,078 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, Aḥmad b. ʿAlī Abu ’l-ʿAbbās, founder of the Rifāʿī ( ṭarīḳa, died 22nd Ḏj̲umādā I, 578 (Sept. 23, 1183) at Umm ʿAbīda, in the district of Wāsiṭ. The date of his birth is given by some authorities as Muḥarram 500 (Sept. 1106), but others say Rad̲j̲ab 512 (Oct.—Nov. 1118), at Ḳaryat Ḥasan, a village in the district of Baṣra. These places being in the region called al-Baṭāʾiḥ [q. v.], he has the further nisba al-Baṭāʾiḥī; al-Rifāʿī is usually explained as referring to an ancestor Rifāʿa, but by some is supposed to be a tribal name. This ancestor Rifāʿa is said to have …

Karrāmīya

(1,216 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, sect, called after Abū ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad b. Karrām (or Karām or Kirām; see Mīzān al-Iʿtidāl, iii. 127, and for further ancestors Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, Kāmil, vii. 149). Of this person, who ¶ is called al-Sid̲j̲istānī, a fairly full biography is given by al-Samʿānī in the Ansāb, 476b, 477a. According to this, he was of the Banū Nizār, was born in a village of Zarand̲j̲, was brought up in Sid̲j̲istān, and afterwards went to Ḵh̲orāsān, where he attended the courses of Aḥmad b. Ḥarb, the Ascetic (d. 234); at Balk̲h̲ he heard Ibrāhīm b. Yūsuf al-Māk…

S̲h̲ād̲h̲ilīya

(2,333 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, or S̲h̲ād̲h̲alīya, pronounced in Africa S̲h̲ādulīya, Ṣūfī sect called after Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. ʿAbd Allāh al-S̲h̲ād̲h̲ilī, whose title is variously given as Tād̲j̲ al-Dīn and Taḳī al-Dīn (593-656 a.h.). For the life of this personage see the art. al-s̲h̲ād̲h̲ilī. His system. Al-S̲h̲ād̲h̲ilī does not appear to have composed any large work, but many sayiūgs, spells and an ode are ascribed to him, and since some of the first are recorded in the work of his ¶ disciple’s disciple, Tād̲j̲ al-Dīn al-Iskandarī, composed in 694, they may be to some extent genuine (see the art. al-s̲h̲ād̲h̲ilī).…

Čis̲h̲tīya

(753 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, Indian Order or Caste of faḳīrs, founded according to some by one Abū Isḥāḳ, descended in the ninth generation from ʿAlī, who migrating from Asia Minor, settled at Čis̲h̲t, a village of Ḵh̲urāsān, or, in another account, settled in Syria and was buried at Acre; according to others by Banda Nawāz, who is buried at Kalbarga; according to others by Ḵh̲wād̲j̲ā Aḥmad Abdāl of Čis̲h̲t (d. 355 = 965—966) brought to India by Muʿīn al-Dīn Čis̲h̲tī, a native of Sid̲j̲z, who migrated thither in the time of Muʿizz al-Dīn b. Sām (589 = 1193) and settled in Ajmeer (Sir D. Ibbetson, Panjab Castes, 1916, p. 22…

Mawlawīya

(1,959 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
(Turkish pronunciation Mewlewīya), Order of Derwishes called by Europeans Dancing or Whirling Derwishes. 1. Origin of the Order. Its name is derived from mawlānā (“our master”), a title given par excellence to Ḏj̲alāl al-Dīn al-Rūmī (e. g. by the Turkish writers Saʿd al-Dīn and Pečewī, cited below), of which the Persian equivalent was according to the Manāḳib al-ʿĀrifīn (translated by Huart as Les Saints des Derviches Tourneurs, Paris 1918—1922) bestowed on Ḏj̲alāl al-Dīn [q. v.] by his father, with whom this hagiography commences. According to the same author…

Baibars

(313 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, al-Manṣūrī al-Ḵh̲aṭaʾī, (about 645—725), Mamlūk minister and historian. Ḳalāūn, who purchased and manumitted him, promoted him to the governorship of Kerak, whence he was dismissed by the Sulṭān Ḵh̲alīl; on the accession of Nāṣir in 693 he was made chief of the dīwān al-ins̲h̲ā with the title dawādārkabīr, which he retained till 704. In 703 he was employed to repair the ravages caused by the earthquake in Alexandria. He was cashiered in 704 by the viceroy Sallār in consequence of a charge of insolence brought by one of the latter’s secreta…

S̲h̲aṭṭārīya

(421 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, Ṣūfī order included in the list of 161 orders furnished to S. Anderson by the Imperial Board of Derwīs̲h̲es at Constantinople ( Moslem World, 1922, p. 56). It is called mad̲h̲hab-i s̲h̲uṭṭār (or s̲h̲aṭṭār) in the Persian work cited below; since a person named S̲h̲aṭṭār is not mentioned in the chief biographical dictionaries of saints, the former vocalization may be correct, as the plural of s̲h̲āṭir, according to Redhouse “a mystic who has broken with the world”, though this sense is not recognized by Sami Pas̲h̲a. The order is mentioned by Abu ’l-Faḍl ( Āīn-i Akbarī, transl. Jarrett, ii…

Zain al-Dīn

(250 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. Muḥammad al-Ḵh̲awāfī, founder of an order called after him Zainīya, which traced itself to Ḏj̲unaid, was born in 757 (1356) at Ḵh̲awāf (between Bus̲h̲and̲j̲ and Zuzan) in Ḵh̲urāsān, and was buried in 838 (1435) at the village Mālīn (two parasangs from Herāt), whence his remains were transferred to Darwīs̲h̲ābād, and thence to the ʿĪdgāh of Herāt, where a mosque was built over them. He obtained authorization ( id̲j̲āza) in Egypt ¶ from Nūr al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Miṣrī ( Nafaḥāt al-Uns, N°. 505), and returned to Central Asia, but visited Egypt again, whenc…

Hamad̲h̲ānī

(640 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
(358—398) Abu ’l-Faḍl Aḥmad b. al-Ḥusain b. Yaḥyā b. Saʿīd b. Bis̲h̲r, called Badiʿ al-Zamān, poet and elegant writer. He studied at his native place Hamad̲h̲ān with the grammarian Aḥmad b. Fāris and others, and in 380 went to Raiy, where he for a time secured the favour of the Ṣāḥib b. ʿAbbād, thence to Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ān where he found a patron in Abū Saʿīd Muḥammad b. Manṣūr. In 382 he went to Nīsābūr, which he reached destitute, having been attacked by brigands on the way; he was less warmly received than he had hoped by Abū Bakr Ḵh̲wārizmī, the leading adīb of the time, and was presently invited…

Saʿdīya

(930 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
or Ḏj̲ibāwīya, an order of dervishes named after the founder Saʿd al-Dīn al-d̲j̲ibāwī, i. e. of Ḏj̲ibā, “between the Hawrān and Damascus”. His death-date is variously given as 700 and 736 a. h.; and the accounts which we have of him are clearly fabulous. According to the Ḵh̲ulāṣat al-At̲h̲ar, i. 34, his father was the S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Yūnus al-S̲h̲aibānī, a pious man, whom in his youth he disobeyed, becoming a leader of banditti in the Ḥawrān; owing, however, to his father’s prayers he was favoured with a vision which resulted in his conversion. Th…

Raws̲h̲anīya

(1,443 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, Afg̲h̲ān sect founded by Bāyazīd b. ʿAbd Allāh, who took the title Pīr-i Rawg̲h̲an: called by their enemies Tārīkiān. 1. Life of the Founder. Bāyazīd was born at D̲j̲ullindur in the Pand̲j̲āb about 931 (1525), his father’s native place being Kaniguram, an Afg̲h̲ān town, whither his parents returned. When his mother Banin was divorced by ʿAbd Allāh, Bāyazīd became alienated from his father, who disapproved of his seeking the solution of religious difficulties from a poor relation, the ascetic Ismāʿīl; he started e…

Raḥmānīya

(1,061 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, Algerian Order ( ṭarīḳa) called after Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Gus̲h̲tulī al-Ḏj̲urd̲j̲urī al-Azharī Abū Ḳabrain, who died 1208 (1793—1794). It is a branch of the Ḵh̲alwatīya and is said to have at one time been called Bakrīya after Muṣṭafā al-Bakrī al-S̲h̲āmī. At Nefta, in Tunisia, and some other places it is called ʿAzzūzīya after Muṣṭafā b. Muḥammad b. ʿAzzūz. Life of the Founder. His family belonged to the tribe Ait Smāʿīl, part of the confederation Gas̲h̲tula in the Ḳābilīya Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ura; having studied at his home, and then in Algiers, he mad…

Naḳs̲h̲band

(618 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, Muḥammad b. Muḥammad Bahāʾ al-Dīn al-Buk̲h̲ārī (717—791 = 1317—1389), founder of the Naḳs̲h̲bandī Order. His name, which signifies “painter” is interpreted as “drawing incomparable pictures of the Divine Science” (J. P. Brown, The Darvishes, 2nd ed., p. 142) or more mystically as “holding the form of real perfection in the heart” ( Miftāḥ al-Maʿīya quoted by Ahlwardt, Berlin Catalogue, N°. 2188). The title al-S̲h̲āh which is given him in a dirge cited in the Ras̲h̲aḥāt means “spiritual leader”. The nisba al-Uwaisī implies that his system resembled that of Uwais al-Ḳaranī. His Acta we…

al-Bāk̲h̲arzī

(300 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D.S.
, abu ’l-ḥasan (or abu ’l-ḳāsim ) ʿalī b. ḥasan b. ʿalī b. abi ’l-ṭayyib , Arab poet and anthologist, a native of Bāk̲h̲arz. After receiving a good education in his father’s house, he studied in particular S̲h̲āfiʿī fiḳh and, at Nīsābūr, attended the lectures of al-D̲j̲uwaynī (ʿAbd Allāh b. Yūsuf [ q.v.], where he made the acquaintance of al-Kundurī [ q.v.]; the latter, when he became wazīr , took him to Bag̲h̲dād as a secretary; previously, he had for some time been an official at Baṣra. Subsequently, he was admitted to the chancellery, an…

ʿAbd al-Ḳādir

(2,067 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
al-Ḏj̲īlī (Gīlānī) Muḥyi ’l-Dīn Abū Muḥammed b. Abī Ṣāliḥ Zengi Dōst, preacher and Ṣūfī, after whom the Ḳādirī order is named, born in 470 (1077-1078), died in 561 (1166). The numerous biographies of this personage teem with fictions, out of which some history may be gleaned. Thus his pedigree is traced on the father’s side to al-Ḥasan, grandson of the Prophet, in the direct line. But this is contradicted by the foreign name of his father, and the fact that the s̲h̲aik̲h̲ was called ʿAd̲j̲amī (foreigner) …

Ibn al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲

(427 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
Abu ʿAbd Allāh al-Ḥusain b. Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Ḏj̲aʿfar, poet of the Būyid period. He belonged to a family which was engaged in the public service, and was himself trained by Abū Isḥāḳ Ibrāhīm al-Ṣābiʾ in secretarial work. He found however that he could earn more by verse, and became an encomiast of the most important among his contemporaries, especially ʿIzz al-Dawla Bak̲h̲tiyār, who appointed him to the office of muḥtasib or censor in Bag̲h̲dād; a most unsuitable appointment, since this poet specialized in obscenity, and indeed against one of the headings in the Paris abridgment of his Dī…

Mewlānā Hunkiār

(158 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, a title of the head of the Mawlawl Order [see mawlawīya]. The second word is the Turkish form of the Persian k̲h̲udāwandg i ār, the equivalent of mawlā, which according to Aflākī ( Saints des Derviches Tourneurs, i. 59) was bestowed on Ḏj̲alāl al-Dīn by his father. Sāmī in his Turkish Lexicon states that the word, besides being used for “Sulṭān”, “King”, is applied to certain saintly personages, in such combinations as pīr hunk i ār or mullā hunk i ār. The underlying idea of such a title is probably that the saint has had committed to him the government of the world, if he…
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