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(1,194 words)

Author(s): Marshall, David
The father of John the Baptist (q.v.) in both the Bible and Qurʾān. Zechariah (Zakariyyā) is mentioned in four qurʾānic passages ( q 3:37-44; 6:85 [a passing reference]; 19:2-15; 21:89-90). He is not directly named as a prophet ( nabī) but by implication is included in the collective references to prophets at q 19:58 and prophethood ( nubuwwa) at q 6:89 (see prophets and prophethood ). The qurʾānic story (see narratives ) of Zechariah and John is always linked to that of Mary (q.v.) and Jesus (q.v.). The fullest account of Zechariah occurs at q 19:2-15. There he is portrayed as a pious o…

Punishment Stories

(2,415 words)

Author(s): Marshall, David
The Qurʾān contains many stories, overwhelmingly from the Meccan period (see chronology and the qurʾān ), which describe God's destruction of unbelieving communities in the generations before Muḥammad (see belief and unbelief ). A key feature of these stories, at least in their more developed forms, is the encounter between a messenger (q.v.) and the particular community to which he is sent to preach God's message. The messenger typically encounters opposition and ridicule ¶ but finally God intervenes to destroy the unbelievers. It is to be noted that these stories d…


(499 words)

Author(s): Marshall, David
Being subject to change, departure or destruction. The Qurʾān contrasts the transitoriness of this world (q.v.; see also generations; history and the qurʾān; air and wind; ashes) with the eternally enduring quality of the hereafter (see eschatology ) and also with the eternity (q.v.) of God (see god and his attributes ). The Qurʾān often states that whereas this life (al- ḥayāt al-dunyā) will pass away (e.g. q 10:24; 18:45) and both its ¶ pleasures (e.g. q 57:20) and its trials (e.g. q 7:94-5; see trial; trust and patience) are transitory, the realities to come in the hereafter ( al-ākhira) w…

Chown, Samuel Dwight

(174 words)

Author(s): Marshall, David B.
[German Version] (Apr 11, 1853, Kingston, Canada West – Jan 30, 1933, Toronto, Ontario) was ordained in 1879 in the Methodist Church of Canada. During the First World War, Chown was the driving force in the initiative to recruit Methodists in the Canadian Expeditionary Force. After the war he led the Methodist church to form the United Church of Canada. Chown was influenced by modern biblical criticism. Accepting the notion of progressive revelation, he accepted that …