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Nad̲j̲ātī Bey

(916 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
, properly ʿÎsā (Nūḥ, also given, is not certain), the first great Turkish lyric poet of the pre-classical period, one of the founders of the classical Ottoman poetry. Born in Adrianople (Amasia and Ḳasṭamūnī are also given), the son of a slave, obviously a Christian prisoner of war for which reason he is called ʿAbd Allāh, the name given to every one, he was adopted by a well-to-do lady of Adrianople, received a good education and was trained by the poet Sāʾilī. In spite of the fact that his non-…

Muḥammad Lālezārī

(104 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
, S̲h̲aik̲h̲, author of a work on tulips, Mīzān al-Azhār “ Balance of Flowers”. This treatise on the cultivation of tulips was composed in the reign of Sultan Aḥmad III (1115—1143 = 1703—1730), who had given the author the title s̲h̲ük i ūfeperwerān on the suggestion of the grand vizier Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a between 1718 and 1730. (Th. Menzel) Bibliography H. Fr. von Diez, Denkwürdigkeiten aus Asien, Halle and Berlin 1815, ii. 1 sqq., reprinted as: Vom Tulpen-und Narcissen-Bau in der Türkey aus dem Türkischen des Scheïch Muhammed Lalézari, Halle and Berlin 1815 Pertsch, Katalog der türk. Hss.…

G̲h̲ālib Dede

(689 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
, after Fuẓūlī, Nefʿī and Nedīm, the last of the four great poets of the old school of Ottoman literature; his real name was S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Muḥammad Esʿad, but he is best known by his pen-name S̲h̲aik̲h̲ G̲h̲ālib or G̲h̲ālib Dede. Born in 1171 = 1757-1758 he was the son of the secretary, Muṣṭafā Res̲h̲īd Efendi in Constantinople and early became connected with the Mewlewī order in whose monastery, in Yeñi Kapu, his father is also said to have acted as kettle-drummer. Following his father’s example he first entered the service of the stat…


(279 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
Und̲j̲i-Zāde Muṣṭafā Čelebi, known in literature as Fehīm of Constantinople, an Ottoman poet of the late classical period (under Murād IV. and Ibrāhīm 1623—1648), and one of the few more important representatives of ¶ the period. A simple scholar, without any proper calling, he attached himself to men of note. He came to Cairo in the train of Eiyūb Pas̲h̲a who had been appointed governor of Egypt. Bat he could not accustom himself to life here, as the bitter verses, veritable Tristia, which he wrote there against Egypt, show. When he lost the favour of the Pas̲h̲a, absolutel…

Ismāʿīl Ḥaḳḳī

(305 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Theodor
, an modern Turkish man of letters and literary historian, editor of the periodical Mekteb, a moderate follower of the old Asiatic school and a former officer of artillery. Besides a few poems, tales, translations, and articles in periodicals, a series of treatises on literary history have been written by him. In 1308 (1890—91) appeared his collection of poems Sewdā-ī Ḵh̲azan yak̲h̲od Teḥassur (Autumn Love or, Repentance too Late). Two Milli stories written under French influence: Iki Ḥaḳīḳat (Two Truths) published in n°. 7 of the Arakel kitāb k̲h̲ānesi d̲j̲eb romanlary, 1311 (1893—9…

Sulaimān Pas̲h̲a

(149 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
, Malaṭiali̊ Ermeni, a Turkish general and statesman under Meḥmed IV (1648—1687). A native of Malaṭia, of Armenian origin, he rose from page to siliḥdār and became governor of Erzerūm and Sīwās with the rank of wazīr. He married ʿĀʾis̲h̲e Sulṭān. In 1065 (1655) he was appointed grand vizier in succession to Murād Pas̲h̲a but he only held office for ten months on account of the confusion in the empire as a result of the mutinies in the army and the complete financial ruin. He was several times banished and again recalled to high of…


(1,223 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
Aḥmed Tāʾib, a notable Ottoman poet, scholar and historian of the end of the xviith and first third of the xviiith century. The son of the rūz-nāmed̲j̲i (māliye tezkered̲j̲i) of the pious foundations, ʿOt̲h̲mān Efendi, he took up a theological career. The year of his birth is not recorded. From 1099 (1687) he held the post of müderris in various medreses in Constantinople. At intervals he also worked in other places. For example in 1107 (1695) he went to Damascus with Kemānkes̲h̲ Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a when the latter was appointed governor there. In 1124 (1712) he was appointed müderris at the Sul…

Muʿallim Nād̲j̲ī

(2,230 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
, properly ʿÖmer, an important Ottoman author, poet, critic and man of letters, who occupies a special and somewhat hybrid position in the history of the Turkish moderns and has given his name to a whole literary period. Born in 1266 (1850) in Constantinople, the third son of a master saddler ʿAlī Ag̲h̲a (not Bey, as some literary historians say), he lost his father at the age of seven. The widow Fāṭime al-Zehrā, who was descended from a muhād̲j̲ir who had come to Constantinople from Rumelia, went to Varna to her brother, the Ḳalayi̊d̲j̲i̊ Aḥmad Ag̲h̲a. The latter in spit…

Muḥyi ’l-Dīn Muḥammad

(479 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
(Meḥmed) b. ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn ʿAlī al-Ḏj̲amālī, a Turkish theologian and historian of the time of Selīm I (1512—1520) and Sulaimān I (1520— 1566). His father was the famous muftī Zanbilī ʿAlī al-Ḏj̲amālī, a grandson of Ḏj̲amāl al-Dīn Meḥmed of Aḳ Serai (hence the epithet Ḏj̲amālī). He received his theological training first from his maternal grandfather, Ḥusāra-Zāde Efendi, then from his father ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn and later from Muʾaiyad-Zāde Efendi. He worked as muderris in several medreses, in Constantinople a…


(7,006 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
, Yazīdīya, the name of a Kurd tribal group and of their peculiar religion which shows ancient characteristics. Area of Distribution. The Yazīdīs are found scattered over a wide area usually leading a settled life but also split up into nomadic clans: 1. in the district of Mōṣul in the northern ʿIrāḳ, in Assyria proper, in the district of S̲h̲aik̲h̲ān. Special mention may be made of: Bāʿad̲h̲rī (Bāʿid̲h̲rī, Baʿid̲h̲rā) about 40 miles N. of Mōṣul, the residence of the chief emīr, their political head; three hours …

Tewfīḳ Meḥmed

(374 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
, called Čaylaḳ Tewfīḳ, a Turkish author and publicist, born in Constantinople in S̲h̲aʿbān 1259 (Sept. 1843), the son of a certain Muṣṭafā Ag̲h̲a who was connected with the Janissaries, and a freedwoman, and died in 1311 (1893) in the same city. After a rather scanty education he entered the War Ministry as a clerk. Introduced to journalism by Filib Efendi, founder and editor of the newspaper Waḳi̊t and Muk̲h̲bir, he devoted himself more and more to this and to authorship, which was only interrupted by longer or shorter tenures of office as secretary in Constant…


(173 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
(Firdewsī), an Ottoman poet of Brusa in the time of Sulṭān Bāyazīd II. (1481— 1512), to distinguish him from the great Persian poet Firdawsl, called Firdewsī-i Rūmī or more frequently Uzun Firdewsī or Firdewsī-i Ṭawīl (“Long” Firdewsi), probably in allusion to the length of his chief work. His chronograms ( taʾrīk̲h̲) were celebrated. His masterpiece is the Sulaimān-Nāme, composed for Sulṭān Bāyazīd by his command, in 360 or 380 volumes, in prose and poetry, a complete encyclopaedia in which he included all the knowledge of his time in philosophy, ast…

Sulaimān Pas̲h̲a

(1,089 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
(1316-1359), the eldest son of the second Ottoman Sulṭān, Ork̲h̲an (1326—1359), and of Nīlūfer (Lülūfer) daughter of the Greek lord of Yar Ḥiṣār. His younger brother was Murād Ḵh̲ān afterwards Sulṭān. Only Greek sources record a third brother Ḵh̲alīl and his romantic abduction by a Greek corsair (cf. J. I. Hod̲j̲i Efendi, S̲h̲ehzāde Ḵh̲alīlin Sergüd̲h̲es̲h̲ti, Revue Historique, i., N°. 4, p. 239; N°. 7, p. 436, Constantinople 1328/1329). The title pas̲h̲a which he bore, according to ancient custom, marks him as the elder brother, as is the case also …


(359 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
, properly ʿAbd al-Laṭīf Čelebi of Ḳasṭamuni, secretary to the office for administering pious foundations ( ʿimāret kiātibi). He was secretary in Belgrade, came in 950 (1543) to Constantinople to the waḳf office of Eyūb, then went to Rhodes and Egypt. He died in 990 (1582) on the voyage from Egypt to Yanbuʿ on the Red Sea. Laṭīfī was a good poet and an even better stylist. He is famous for his collection of biographies of poets, Ted̲h̲kere-i S̲h̲uʿarāʾ, which he finished in 953 (1546) and like Sehī, whose example he was the first to follow, dedicated it to Sulṭān Sulaimān…

Ḥasan Čelebi

(326 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Theodor
Ḳinālī-zāde, a famous Ottoman scholar and biographer of poets. Born in 953 (1546-1547) in Brusa, the son of Ḳinālī-zāde Mewlānā ʿAlī Čelebi b. Emr-Allāh, famous as a poet and scholar, then müderris in the Ḥamza-Bey-Medrese, Ḥasan, like his father, devoted himself to the study of law and theology. After an active and honourable career as müderris and ḳāḍī in Brusa, Adrianople, Aleppo, Cairo, Gallipoli, Eiyūb and New Zagra, he died ḳāḍī of Rosetta in Egypt on the 12th S̲h̲awwāl 1012 (14th March 1604). Ḥasan Čelebi was, as is the custom with Turkish scholars, also a poet, althoug…


(798 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Čelebī, an important Ottoman theologian and legist. Born in 860 (1456) in Amasia of the family of Muʾaiyad-zāde (his father ʿAlī was one of the three sons of Diwrikli-zāde S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Muʾaiyad Čelebī [d. 851 = 1447], S̲h̲aik̲h̲ of the Yaʿḳūb Pas̲h̲a Zāwiyesi in Amasia), he became, as a young student of theology, acquainted with prince Bāyazīd, the younger son of Sulṭān Meḥmed al-Fātiḥ and afterwards Sulṭān, who had been appointed wall of Amasia as a seven year old boy, and becam…

Ḥusain Raḥmī

(936 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Theodor
, a notable representative of the modern school of Turkish literature, one of the most widely read if not the most popular Turkish writer of the present day. He owes his eminence to his remarkable sketches of life of the populace which he reproduces in masterly fashion in vivid colours in lifelike snapshots which reflect the whole freshness and artlessness of the surroundings. In his work there is a certain connection with the popular art of the storytellers ( meddāḥ, q. v.) and their masterly skill in imitating the real, rough everyday life of the people, which Raḥmī was …

Mihrī K̲h̲atun

(663 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
(originally Mihr-i Māh), an important Turkish poetess of the end of the xvth and beginning of the xvith centuries. She belonged to Amasia, which produced a number of poets, and spent her whole life there. She was one of the family of Pīr Ilyās. Her father was a ḳādī and wrote poetry under the mak̲h̲laṣ of Belāī. She inherited from him her poetic gifts and also ¶ received from him the poetic and theological training ascribed to her by Ewliyā. Not much is known of her life. This is in part to be explained by the reticence of the East regarding women. That in the East boys rat…


(470 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Theodor
ʿAzmī-zāde Muṣṭafā Efendi, known as ʿAzmī-zāde or by his pen-name Ḥāletī, a famous Ottoman scholar and poet, born in 977 on the 15th S̲h̲aʿbān (23th Jan. 1570) in Constantinople, the son of Pīr Meḥmed ʿAzmī Efendi, a literary man of some importance, the tutor of Sulṭān Murād III. He had the good fortune to study under the most distinguished scholars of his time, notably the historian Ḵh̲od̲j̲a Saʿd al-Dīn. Under their direction he laid the foundations for his later encyclopaedic knowledge of history. He was a müderris …

Muḥammad Lālezārī

(144 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
, Ṭāhir, the name of a Ḳāḍī who died in 1204 (1789) in Constantinople, who wrote a series of theological treatises and commentaries, which are still only accessible in ms.: Mīzān al-Muḳīm fī Maʿrifat al-Ḳisṭās al-mustaḳīm; Dafʿ Iʿtirāḍ Rāg̲h̲ib fī Ḥaḳḳ al-Fuṣūṣ; commentary on the Ḳaṣīde-i nūnīye, and the commentaries in a collected volume in the ʿĀs̲h̲ir Efendi-Library in Constantinople ( Defter-i Kütübk̲h̲āne-i ʿĀs̲h̲ir Efendi, Constantinople 1306, p. 188, N°. 124 [3rd Waḳf-foundation]) containing: Ḏj̲awāhir al-ẓāhire (on G̲h̲azālī); Yāḳūṭat al-ḥamrā (on Birgewī); Zumrudat a…
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