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Ned̲jātī Bey

(965 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
, properly ʿĪsā (Nūḥ, also given, is not certain), the first great Turkish lyric poet of the pre-classical period, one of the founders of the classical Ottoman poetry. Born in Edirne (Amasia and Ḳasṭamūnī are also given), the son of a slave, obviously a Christian prisoner of war for which reason he is called ʿAbd Allāh, the name given to converts, he was adopted by a well-to-do lady of Edirne, received a good education and was trained by the poet Sāʾilī. In spite of the fact …

T̲h̲ābit

(834 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
, whose personal name was ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn, an important Ottoman poet of the transition period (mainly under Sulṭān Aḥmad III [1703—30]) with a distinct style of his own, quite outside of the usual. Born in Užica in Bosnia about 1060 (1650) of humble origin and of Serbo-Croat parents, he was related to the poet Wuṣlat ʿAlī Bey Pašić of Užica and Māhirī ʿAbd Allāh of Serajevo. He died in Constantinople in 1124 (1712—13). He adopted a theological career and went to Constantinople at the end of his studies, …

Luṭfī Pas̲h̲a

(1,462 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
, properly Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Luṭfī Pas̲h̲a b. ʿAbd al-Muʿīn, an important Turkish statesman, scholar and historian, grand vizier in the time of Sulṭān Sulaimān I al-Ḳānūnī. He was of Albanian descent. The date and place of his birth are unknown. He was brought up in the imperial serai, which he had ¶ apparently entered through the dews̲h̲irme for the Janissaries. Much may be learned of his career from his own biographical references in the “History” and in the Āṣaf-nāme. Even in the serai he devoted himself to theological studies, a fondness for which he retained throughout his whole life. At the …

Sulaimān Pas̲h̲a

(400 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
, known as Ḵh̲ādim, the “eunuch”, a Turkish general and statesman of the time of Sulaimān the Great. He began his career in the Imperial Ḥarem, which he left with the rank of wazīr to take over the governorship of Syria. As Mīr-i Mīrān, he was then summoned to the important office of governor of Egypt which he filled for ten years (931—941 = 1524—1534) with vigour and circumspection. He was the first to send to the Porte the yearly revenue from Egypt, the so called Egyptian treasure, later so important for Turkey. In reply to the appeal of the Sulṭān of Gud̲j̲arat he was ordered by Sulṭ…

Muʾayyad-Zāde

(803 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
or Müʾeyyed-zāde , ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAlī Čelebī , an important Ottoman theologian and legist. Born in 860/1456 in Amasya of the family of Muʾayyad-zāde (his father ʿAlī was one of the Three sons of Diwrigli-zāde S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Muʾayyad Čelebī, d. 851/1447, S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ of the Yaʿḳūb Pas̲h̲a zāwiye in Amasya), he became, as a young student of theology, acquainted with prince Bāyezīd, the younger son of Sultan Meḥemmed Fātiḥ and afterwards Sultan, who had been appointed wālī of Amasya as a seven year-old boy, and became a member of his circle. It is t…

Muḥyi ’l-Dīn Meḥmed

(490 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
b. ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn ʿAlī al-D̲j̲amālī . called Mollā Čelebi , a Turkish theologian and historian of the time of Selīm I (918-26/1512-20) and Sulaymān II (926-74/1520-66). His father was the famous muftī Zanbīlī ʿAlī al-D̲j̲amālī, a grandson of D̲j̲amāl al-Dīn Meḥmed of Aḳ Seray (hence the epithet D̲j̲amālī). He received his theological training first from his maternal grandfather Ḥusām-zāde Efendi, then from his father ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn and later from Muʾayyad-zāde Efendi. He ¶ worked as a müderris in several medreses , in Istanbul at the Murād medrese and at the eig…

Süleymān D̲h̲ātī

(120 words)

Author(s): *Menzel, Th.
, Ottoman poet and Ṣūfī adherent of the K̲h̲alwatiyya order and k̲h̲alīfat of S̲h̲eyk̲h̲ Ismāʿīl Ḥaḳḳī, b. in Gallipoli, d. 1151/1738-9 as pūst-nes̲h̲īn of the K̲h̲alwatī tekke in Kes̲h̲an. He left behind a dīwān of Ṣūfī-inspired verse and a verse treatise, Sawāniḥ al-nawādir fī maʿrifat al-anāṣir or Mad̲j̲maʿ al-anāṣir (printed together, Istanbul 1289/1872); S̲h̲arḥ-i ḳaṣīda yi-Ḥaḍrat Ismāʿīl Ḥaḳḳī , a commentary on a Ṣūfī poem; and Miftāḥ al-masāʾil , dealing with various theological questions, such as predestination, the nature of the af…

Naẓmī

(244 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
, S̲h̲eyk̲h̲ Meḥmed b. Ramaḍān , Ottoman poet and K̲h̲alwetī s̲h̲eyk̲h̲ . The son of a merchant named Ramaḍān b. Rüstem, he was born in Istanbul in the Ḳod̲j̲a Muṣṭafā Pas̲h̲a quarter in 1032/1622-3. He became a disciple of ʿAbd al-Aḥad ¶ al-Nūrī. In 1065/1654-5 he became s̲h̲eyk̲h̲ ( pūst-nis̲h̲īn [ q.v.]) in the K̲h̲alwetī monastery of Yawas̲h̲d̲j̲e Meḥmed Ag̲h̲a near S̲h̲ehr Emīni, later (1105/1693) also preacher ( wāʿiẓ ) at the Sulṭān Wālide mosque. He died on 24 S̲h̲awwāl 1112/3 April 1701 and was buried in a special türbe . His son was ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Rafī…

S̲h̲arḳī

(584 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
As opposed to the Turkish popular ballad which has arisen among the people and is composed on the national system, syllabic ( parmaḳ ḥisābi) not metric and is found, in various forms notably the türkü and also as turkmani̊, warsag̲h̲i̊, ḳos̲h̲ma, ḳaya bas̲h̲i̊, mani̊ and tuyug̲h̲ (on the latter cf. Samoilowič in Musuljmanskij Mir, Petrograd 1917, i. N°. 1, p. 1 sqq.), the S̲h̲arḳī is a poem regularly composed by a poet on literary lines in more or less accurate agreement with the laws of Persian and Arabic prosody, following the quantitative system of metre: the s̲h̲arḳī is the türkü adapted …

Gagauzes

(1,409 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
, a people of Turkish origin speaking a pure Turkish language but professing the orthodox faith; their numbers are small. They live in isolated colonies and at the present day are found chiefly scattered over Bessarabia (mainly within the triangle formed by lines joining Ismail-Bolgrad-Kagul, in the district of Trajan’s wall and also at Bender and Akkerman), on the west coast of the Black Sea from the mouth of the Danube and Silistria to Cape Emine, in the Dobrudja in Roumania (Niiolitel and Tai…

Lāmiʿī

(1,053 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
nom de plume ( tak̲h̲alluṣ) of S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Maḥmūd b. ʿOt̲h̲mān b. ʿAlī al-Naḳḳās̲h̲, a celebrated Ṣūfī writer and poet of the early part of the reign of Sulaimān I, the era, not only of the greatest political development of the Turkish empire, but also that in which literature was most cultivated. He was born in Brussa, the son of the defterdār of Sulṭān Bāyazīd’s treasury. His grandfather had been taken by Timurlenk after his invasion to Transoxania (Samarḳand) where he learned the art of naḳḳās̲h̲li̊ḳ (embroidery and painting) there highly cultivated and on his return to Asia …

K̲h̲ālid Ziyā

(1,161 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
, ʿUs̲h̲aḳi-Zāde, the leading writer of prose and fiction in modern Turkish literature. Born in 1282 (1866) in Constantinople of a prominent family which came originally from the carpet town of ʿUs̲h̲aḳ — hence the epithet ʿUs̲h̲aḳi-zāde — he spent his youth in Constantinople and Smyrna. He received his education from the Mechitarists in Smyrna. This laid the foundations of his love for and knowledge of the west. He translated industriously from the French and made literary attempts of his own. The collection called Nāḳil in 6 volumes contains stories of his own alongside of tr…

Tewfīḳ Fikret

(2,117 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
, whose real name was Meḥmed Tewfīḳ, the poetical name of Fikret being assumed later instead of Tewfīḳ Naẓmī which he first took, an important Turkish poet and metricist, founder of the modern Turkish school of poetry. Born on the 24th S̲h̲aʿbān 1284 (Dec. 25, 1867) in Constantinople, the son of the secretary to Fāṭima Sulṭān, afterwards müteṣṣarif Ḥusein Efendi (descended from a family of notables of Čerkes̲h̲ in Anatolia) and Ḵh̲adīd̲j̲a Refīʿa Ḵh̲ani̊m, a Turkish lady from the island of Chios (probably originally of Greek descent), received a caref…

Ḳaplan Muṣṭafā

(437 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
Pas̲h̲a, a native of Merzifon, an Ottoman general and statesman of the time of Sulṭān Meḥmed IV (1648-87), one of the ablest and most successful collaborators of the Grand Vizier Köprülü Aḥmad Fāẓil (Fāḍil) Pas̲h̲a and therefore closely involved in Turkey’s struggle under the Köprülü’s to regain her old position of power. He was brought up in the court service, was Siliḥdār of the Sulṭān and in 1650 was appointed Wazīr and Wālī of Bag̲h̲dād. He spent a number of years as Wālī of important provinces, in Wān, Ḳonya and Damascus, until the Hungarian…

Faẓlī

(425 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
(Faḍlī), Muḥammad, known as Ḳara Faẓlī (Faẓlī the Black) or Faẓlī Čelebi, an ¶ Ottoman poet. The son of a saddler, born in Constantinople, he devoted himself to the study of mysticism as a pupil of Zarīfī and, according to ʿAhdī, entered the Ḵh̲alwatī order. He soon showed himself a poet of talent. His teacher, Ẓātī, himself celebrated as a poet, succeeded in drawing Sulṭān Sulaimān’s attention to him in 1530, at the festival on the circumcision of Princes Meḥemmed, Muṣṭafā and Selīm. The S…

Wānḳūli̊

(278 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
, Meḥmed b. Muṣṭafā al-Wānī, a famous Ottoman jurist in the time of Murād III (982—1003 = 1574—1595) who especially distinguished himself in the field of fiḳh, lexicography and literature. Born in Wān, he acted in a number of towns (Constantinople, Rhodes, Manissa, Sal…

Kemāl Meḥmed Nāmi̊ḳ

(4,117 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
, one of the most important of Turkish poets, stylists and authors, the principal leader of the Turkish moderns, creator of the modern Turkish prose language and the most notable Turkish patriot of modern times. Kemāl, born on Dec. 21, 1840 (S̲h̲awwāl 26,1256), in Rhodosto on the Sea of Marmara, belonged to an old aristocratic family which could be traced back through his father, the astronomer Muṣṭafā ʿĀṣim Bey, his father S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Bey, the first Chamberlain of Sulṭān Selīm III, and his f…

K̲h̲alīlī

(278 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
, Ottoman poet and mystic of the time of Sulṭān Meḥmed II, belonged to the neighbourhood of Diyārbakr and came to Iznīḳ to study theology where he formed an attachment for a youth and so succumbed to this homosexual passion then so prevalent particularly in the most cultured circles that he entirely abandoned his studies and gave expression to his woes in a book which is known as the Firḳat-nāma (“book of separation”). The title Firāḳ-nāma is equally well known, which Sehī gives first and which is also the title of a book by Ḳāḍī Ḥasan b. ʿAli of Monastir. The poem, which reminds one of the Hewes-nām…

Sāhir

(699 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
, Ḏj̲elāl, a notable modern Ottoman poet and author. Born in 1883 in Constantinople, the son of Ismāʿīl Ḥaḳḳī Pas̲h̲a who died in Yemen, he early showed literary inclinations and a talent for declamation. Through his writings he ¶ was very soon able to procure for himself a prominent position among Turkish men of letters. He acted as a teacher of French and of belleslettres and was for a time employed in the Foreign Office. Later he acted chiefly as editor of various periodicals, e. g. the literary part of the T̲h̲erwet-i fünūn, the ladies’ newspaper Demet (the Nosegay), founded by him in …

Nad̲j̲ātī Bey

(916 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
, properly ʿÎsā (Nūḥ, also given, is not certain), the first great Turkish lyric poet of the pre-classical period, one of the founders of the classical Ottoman poetry. Born in Adrianople (Amasia and Ḳasṭamūnī are also given), the son of a slave, obviously a Christian prisoner of war for which reason he is called ʿAbd Allāh, the name given to every one, he was adopted by a well-to-do lady of Adrianople, received a good education and was trained by the poet Sāʾilī. In spite of the fact that his non-…
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