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Muḥyi ’l-Dīn Muḥammad

(479 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
(Meḥmed) b. ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn ʿAlī al-Ḏj̲amālī, a Turkish theologian and historian of the time of Selīm I (1512—1520) and Sulaimān I (1520— 1566). His father was the famous muftī Zanbilī ʿAlī al-Ḏj̲amālī, a grandson of Ḏj̲amāl al-Dīn Meḥmed of Aḳ Serai (hence the epithet Ḏj̲amālī). He received his theological training first from his maternal grandfather, Ḥusāra-Zāde Efendi, then from his father ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn and later from Muʾaiyad-Zāde Efendi. He worked as muderris in several medreses, in Constantinople a…


(7,006 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
, Yazīdīya, the name of a Kurd tribal group and of their peculiar religion which shows ancient characteristics. Area of Distribution. The Yazīdīs are found scattered over a wide area usually leading a settled life but also split up into nomadic clans: 1. in the district of Mōṣul in the northern ʿIrāḳ, in Assyria proper, in the district of S̲h̲aik̲h̲ān. Special mention may be made of: Bāʿad̲h̲rī (Bāʿid̲h̲rī, Baʿid̲h̲rā) about 40 miles N. of Mōṣul, the residence of the chief emīr, their political head; three hours …

Tewfīḳ Meḥmed

(374 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
, called Čaylaḳ Tewfīḳ, a Turkish author and publicist, born in Constantinople in S̲h̲aʿbān 1259 (Sept. 1843), the son of a certain Muṣṭafā Ag̲h̲a who was connected with the Janissaries, and a freedwoman, and died in 1311 (1893) in the same city. After a rather scanty education he entered the War Ministry as a clerk. Introduced to journalism by Filib Efendi, founder and editor of the newspaper Waḳi̊t and Muk̲h̲bir, he devoted himself more and more to this and to authorship, which was only interrupted by longer or shorter tenures of office as secretary in Constant…


(173 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
(Firdewsī), an Ottoman poet of Brusa in the time of Sulṭān Bāyazīd II. (1481— 1512), to distinguish him from the great Persian poet Firdawsl, called Firdewsī-i Rūmī or more frequently Uzun Firdewsī or Firdewsī-i Ṭawīl (“Long” Firdewsi), probably in allusion to the length of his chief work. His chronograms ( taʾrīk̲h̲) were celebrated. His masterpiece is the Sulaimān-Nāme, composed for Sulṭān Bāyazīd by his command, in 360 or 380 volumes, in prose and poetry, a complete encyclopaedia in which he included all the knowledge of his time in philosophy, ast…

Sulaimān Pas̲h̲a

(1,089 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
(1316-1359), the eldest son of the second Ottoman Sulṭān, Ork̲h̲an (1326—1359), and of Nīlūfer (Lülūfer) daughter of the Greek lord of Yar Ḥiṣār. His younger brother was Murād Ḵh̲ān afterwards Sulṭān. Only Greek sources record a third brother Ḵh̲alīl and his romantic abduction by a Greek corsair (cf. J. I. Hod̲j̲i Efendi, S̲h̲ehzāde Ḵh̲alīlin Sergüd̲h̲es̲h̲ti, Revue Historique, i., N°. 4, p. 239; N°. 7, p. 436, Constantinople 1328/1329). The title pas̲h̲a which he bore, according to ancient custom, marks him as the elder brother, as is the case also …


(359 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
, properly ʿAbd al-Laṭīf Čelebi of Ḳasṭamuni, secretary to the office for administering pious foundations ( ʿimāret kiātibi). He was secretary in Belgrade, came in 950 (1543) to Constantinople to the waḳf office of Eyūb, then went to Rhodes and Egypt. He died in 990 (1582) on the voyage from Egypt to Yanbuʿ on the Red Sea. Laṭīfī was a good poet and an even better stylist. He is famous for his collection of biographies of poets, Ted̲h̲kere-i S̲h̲uʿarāʾ, which he finished in 953 (1546) and like Sehī, whose example he was the first to follow, dedicated it to Sulṭān Sulaimān…


(798 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Čelebī, an important Ottoman theologian and legist. Born in 860 (1456) in Amasia of the family of Muʾaiyad-zāde (his father ʿAlī was one of the three sons of Diwrikli-zāde S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Muʾaiyad Čelebī [d. 851 = 1447], S̲h̲aik̲h̲ of the Yaʿḳūb Pas̲h̲a Zāwiyesi in Amasia), he became, as a young student of theology, acquainted with prince Bāyazīd, the younger son of Sulṭān Meḥmed al-Fātiḥ and afterwards Sulṭān, who had been appointed wall of Amasia as a seven year old boy, and becam…

Mihrī K̲h̲atun

(663 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
(originally Mihr-i Māh), an important Turkish poetess of the end of the xvth and beginning of the xvith centuries. She belonged to Amasia, which produced a number of poets, and spent her whole life there. She was one of the family of Pīr Ilyās. Her father was a ḳādī and wrote poetry under the mak̲h̲laṣ of Belāī. She inherited from him her poetic gifts and also ¶ received from him the poetic and theological training ascribed to her by Ewliyā. Not much is known of her life. This is in part to be explained by the reticence of the East regarding women. That in the East boys rat…

Muḥammad Lālezārī

(144 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
, Ṭāhir, the name of a Ḳāḍī who died in 1204 (1789) in Constantinople, who wrote a series of theological treatises and commentaries, which are still only accessible in ms.: Mīzān al-Muḳīm fī Maʿrifat al-Ḳisṭās al-mustaḳīm; Dafʿ Iʿtirāḍ Rāg̲h̲ib fī Ḥaḳḳ al-Fuṣūṣ; commentary on the Ḳaṣīde-i nūnīye, and the commentaries in a collected volume in the ʿĀs̲h̲ir Efendi-Library in Constantinople ( Defter-i Kütübk̲h̲āne-i ʿĀs̲h̲ir Efendi, Constantinople 1306, p. 188, N°. 124 [3rd Waḳf-foundation]) containing: Ḏj̲awāhir al-ẓāhire (on G̲h̲azālī); Yāḳūṭat al-ḥamrā (on Birgewī); Zumrudat a…


(686 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
, one of the most important Ottoman poets of the preparatory classical period. His real name was ʿIwaz or Bak̲h̲s̲h̲ī or Yak̲h̲s̲h̲ī (according to Laṭīfī). Born in 876 (1471—1472) in Bali̊kesri in Ḳarasi̊, the son of a shoemaker, he followed the same trade. He had no education. In spite of all obstacles his poetical ability displayed itself. He was a born poet. In the time of Sulṭān Bāyazīd he came to Constantinople. As his original plan of becoming a ḳāḍī after some training fell through on acc…

K̲h̲alīl Efendi Zāde

(182 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
, Meḥmed Saʿīd Efendi, one of the ʿulamāʾ of the time of Sulṭān Maḥmūd I (1730—1754). He was the son of Birgili Ḵh̲alīl Efendi who was twice Ḳāḍī-ʿaskar of Anatolia. He studied under his father, then passed through the usual Madrasa course and beginning as mollā of Yeni-s̲h̲ehir in 1135 (1722—1723) ascended the various steps of the ʿulamāʾ hierarchy to the highest office. He was appointed S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Islām in 1162 (1749) but was dismissed within ten months in 1750 on account of his stern and unyi…


(539 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
, Muḥammad Čelebī, called G̲h̲azālī (probably after the gazelle-skin rug, peculiar to the S̲h̲aik̲h̲s of many orders), usually quoted as Deli Birāder (crazy brother), an Ottoman poet of the early Sulaimānian age. Born in Brusa he became a professor ( müderris) in a Madrasa there, on the completion of his studies. But his bright nature, full of the joy of life, his love of pleasure, his skill as a conversationalist, a ready wit, his extraordinary imperturbability, an inexhaustible fund of anecdote and a great readiness in versifying ma…

K̲h̲airullāh Efendi

(680 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
, an important Turkish historian. Born in Constantinople, of a family which had over 160 years unbroken service with the Sulṭān, the son of the famous ʿAbd al-Ḥaḳḳ Efendi (d. 1270 = 1853/1854, a theologian and physician, who was thrice Ser-iAṭibbā and from 1269 bore the honorary title Raʾīs al-ʿUlamā), he began by following in his father’s footsteps and adopted a theological career, his first office being Mollā of Smyrna (1258=1842). Later he turned to science, medicine and education. In 1265 he became a member of the Board of Education, the …

K̲h̲air al-Dīn Pas̲h̲a

(325 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
, a statesman of the time of ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd II. He was of Circassian origin, but spent his early years in Tunis, where he rose to important offices as a result of his brilliant abilities. He ultimately became bas̲h̲ müdīr. His great aim was to achieve a closer relationship with Turkey, which was recognised in a firman of Sulṭān ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz. As a result of a quarrel with Ṣādiḳ Pas̲h̲a, then Walī of Tunis, he left the Tunisian service and retired to Paris. In 1294 (1877) ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd summoned him to Constantinople and appointed him p…

Kitāb al-Ḏj̲ilwa

(2,418 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
, one of the two sacred books of the Yazīdīs [q. v.], which with the Maṣḥaf- räs̲h̲ contains the fundamentals of their religion. As the religious language of the Yazīdīs is Kurdish and all the prayers of the Yazīdīs known to us are in Kurdish (for example, the chief prayer, the morning prayer, the formulae used at baptism and circumcision, the proclamation at the assembly of the sand̲j̲aḳ, and God himself in the apocryphal continuation of the Maṣḥaf- räs̲h̲ speaks Kurdish), it is rather remarkable that their two sacred books, the existence of which has long been known and…


(81 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
(Sulaimān), a Ṣūfī Ottoman poet, of Gallipoli (not Brussa, as often stated), k̲h̲alīfa of S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Ismāʿīl Ḥaḳḳī. He died in 1151 (1738) as pūst-nis̲h̲īn of the Ḵh̲alwetī monastery in Kes̲h̲an. He left a Dīwān with Ṣūfī poems and a treatise in verse: Sawāniḥ al-Nawādir fī Maʿrifat al-ʿAnāṣir (printed together); and two prose works: 23 Esʾele-i müteṣawwifāneye Ḏj̲ewāb-nāme and Miftāḥ al-Masāʾil. ¶ (Th. Menzel) Bibliography Brusali̊ Meḥmed Ṭāhir, ʿOt̲h̲mānli̊ Müʾellifleri, i. 72—73 T̲h̲uraiyā, Sid̲j̲ill-i ʿot̲h̲mānī, ii. 342 Sāmī, Ḳāmūs al-Aʿlām, iii. 2224.


(140 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
, an Ottoman poet and scholar; his full name was Fehīm Sulaimān Efendi and he is also known as Ḵh̲od̲j̲a Fehīm. Born in 1203 (1787-1788) in Constantinople, he first of all became an official in the Dīwān, then in the Mint and Customs service, and ultimately a ḳāʾimmaḳām in Rumelia. He retired from office and obtained a reputation as a teacher of Persian in Constantinople. He died in 1262 (1845-1846). Fehīm principally composed g̲h̲azals and his Dīwān has been printed. He wrote a commentary ( Sāʾib S̲h̲arḥī) on selected g̲h̲azals of the Persian poet Sāʾib of Iṣfahān and translated…

ʿAdī b. Musāfir

(609 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
, the saint of the Yazīdīs [q. v.],. born in Bait Fār near Baʿalbek in Syria, died at the age of 90 in 555 or 557 (1160 or 1162) in Lāles̲h̲, where also is buried his nephew and successor S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Sak̲h̲r b. Sak̲h̲r b. Musāfir, was the author of numerous works on the Muslim religion, which aroused no sort of objections on the part of orthodoxy, and was the founder of a Ṣūfī order, ʿAdawīya (or Ṣoḥbetīye), which in course of time, as the mountain Kurds joined it, degenerated and is said to have become Yazīdism. As many abuses had developed among the successors of ʿAdī (the Yazīdī pronunci…

Saʿīd Pas̲h̲a

(1,574 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
, called Küčük (the “little”, not so much to indicate that he was particularly small in body as simply to distinguish him from numerous other Saʿīd’s), was with the reformer and organiser Aḥmed Midḥat Pas̲h̲a the greatest statesman in Turkey of the last half century. He was born in 1254 (1838) in Erzerūm and died in Constantinople on March 1, 1914; he was the son of ʿAlī Nāmi̊ḳ Efendi, at one time “controller of expenditure on the eastern frontier” and trusted adviser to the governor of the day, w…


(118 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Th.
, a Persian formation from the Arabie samāʿ [q. v.] and Persian k̲h̲ane, the dancing hall or dancing room, i.e. the space in the monasteries devoted to those Ṣūfī dances always held in abhorrence by Muslim orthodoxy, to muḳābele (mugābele) and to d̲h̲ikr. Dancing and ¶ music are, as a rule, particularly associated with the Mewlewī. But the Bektās̲h̲ī monasteries have also their semāʿ-k̲h̲āne; the great old Bektās̲h̲ī monastery of Seiyid-i G̲h̲āzī, for example, has three semāʿ-k̲h̲āne in one suite, in front of the türbe of Seiyid Baṭṭāl. Cf. K. Wulzinger, Drei Bektaschi-Klöster Phrygie…
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