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7.2. Sacraments, liturgy and pastoral care

(2,624 words)

Author(s): Mitsiou, Ekaterini
A. Sacraments A.1. Content and ritesThe exact number of  sacraments was not fixed in Byzantium until at least the 13th century. Only at the Council of Lyon (1274) were seven mysteries specified (baptism, confirmation/chrismation, eucharist/communion, ordination, matrimony, penance and extreme unction), while  Theodore Stoudites in the 9th century, for example, listed only six: ‘illumination’ (baptism), synaxis (eucharist), the preparation of the holy chrism, ordination, monastic tonsure and burial.  Joasaph of Ephesus in the 15th century even argued for ten, ad…
Date: 2019-10-14

7.3. Sanctity, piety and deviance

(3,581 words)

Author(s): Mitsiou, Ekaterini
A. Sanctity and the veneration of saintsAll Byzantine  saints’ cults began on the local level. A monk to whom  miracles were attributed after his death, for example, would slowly become the focus of a local cult fostered by his pupils or followers, confined to a single monastery or church. The key mechanisms by which such a cult began to spread, and the saint in question achieved general recognition beyond the regional level, included the composition of a  vita and hymns, the celebration of the day of a saint’s death, the veneration of his relics and the creation of an icon. The  icons and ima…
Date: 2019-10-14

7.5. Monasticism and monastic institutions

(4,739 words)

Author(s): Mitsiou, Ekaterini
A. Models and sources of inspirationAs old theories attributing the emergence of  monasticism to individuals or regions have been refuted in recent years, so the near-simultaneous appearance of similar phenomena of monastic life in different regions has become a focus of interest in the study of religion. Christians in the 2nd and 3rd centuries often chose a life of celibacy, asceticism and fasting. The inspiration for these ascetic tendencies may have been Jewish groups, such as the Rechabites mentioned in…
Date: 2019-10-14

 Kata dynamin monōdia epi tē halōsei tēs Thessalonikēs

(328 words)

Author(s): Mitsiou, Ekaterini
'A lament on the capture of Thessaloniki according to my abilities' John Anagnostes Date: After 29 March 1430 Original Language: Greek Description Tsaras ( Hē teleutaia halosē , xiii-xviii) argues that the Monody (pp. 70-76 in his edition) is not by John Anagnostes but a later redactor. It is a lament on the fate of Thessaloniki and the loss of its churches and monasteries. The author shows his distress at the image of the destroyed city. Significance The work registers the sentiments of the Christian population of Thessaloniki after its capture by the Ottomans. Manuscripts MS Vat – Gr. 1…

 Syngraphikai historiai

(1,075 words)

Author(s): Mitsiou, Ekaterini
‘Historical narration’ George Pachymeres Date: After 1307 Original Language: Greek Description The Syngraphikai historiai (called Chronikon, ‘Chronicle’, in MS Munich – Monac. Gr. 442, and Rhomaik ē historia, ‘Roman history’, in MS Paris, BNP – Gr. 1723) is divided into 13 books. The first six deal with the reign of Michael VIII Palaeologus (r. 1259-82), and the rest with that of his son Andronicus II Palaeologus (r. 1282-1328) up to 1307. Pachymeres began it after 1291, and he finished it in 1307. At the end of the 14th …

 Diēgēsis peri tēs teleutaias halōseōs tēs Thessalonikēs syntetheisa pros tina tōn axiologōn pollakis aitēsanta peri tautēs, en epitomō

(686 words)

Author(s): Mitsiou, Ekaterini
'The account by John Anagnostes of the last capture of Thessalonica, composed for a person of importance who has often asked for it, in an abbreviated form' John Anagnostes Date: Some years after 29 March 1430 Original Language: Greek Description The work, which covers pages 2-68 in Tsaras’ edition, is an eye-witness account of the sack of the city of Thessaloniki. Tsaras ( Hē teleutaia halosē, pp. xiii-xviii) argues that John’s own account stops suddenly with the capture of the city, and that it was later completed by another writer who also composed the Mon…

John Anagnostes

(342 words)

Author(s): Mitsiou, Ekaterini
Iōannēs Anagnōstēs Date of Birth: End of the 14th century Place of Birth: Probably in Thessaloniki Date of Death: After 1430 Place of Death: Unknown Biography The little that is known about John Anagnostes is derived from his own work. He was probably a member of the lower clergy ( anagnōstēs) in Thessaloniki in the period of the Venetian occupation in the 1420s. He belonged to the supporters of the Metropolitan of Thessaloniki, Symeon (1416-29). After the capture of the city by the Ottomans on 29 March 1430, he was taken captive. A few months …

George Pachymeres

(734 words)

Author(s): Mitsiou, Ekaterini
Geōrgios Pachymerēs Date of Birth: 1242 Place of Birth: Nicea Date of Death: After 1307 Place of Death: Probably Constantinople Biography George Pachymeres was born in 1242 in the exile state of Nicea to a family from Constantinople. It is unclear whether the two brothers John and Michael Pachymeres were his sons or nephews (see V. Laurent’s introduction to Tannery, Quadrivium de Georges Pachymère, p. xxvii, n. 3). At the age of 19, Pachymeres returned to Constantinople and studied philosophy, rhetoric, mathematics and logic, probably under George Akropolites (q…

7.2. Sakramente, Liturgie und Seelsorge

(2,460 words)

Author(s): Mitsiou, Ekaterini
A. Sakramente A.1. Inhalt und RitusZumindest bis zum 13. Jh. war in Byzanz die genaue Zahl der Sakramente nicht fixiert. Erst zur Zeit der Union von Lyon 1274 werden sieben Mysterien aufgezählt (Taufe, Firmung, Eucharistie, Weihesakramente, Ehe, Beichte und heilige Ölung), während z. B. Theodoros Studites im 9. Jh. nur sechs Sakramente nannte: Taufe, Eucharistie, Zubereitung des Myrons, Ordination, Tonsur und Begräbnis. Joasaph von Ephesos listete im 15. Jh. sogar zehn Sakramente auf: zusätzlich zu den im 13. Jh. Genannten die Kirchweihe, das Begräbnis und die Tonsur [5]. Die…
Date: 2019-03-15

7.5. Mönchtum und Klosterwesen

(4,623 words)

Author(s): Mitsiou, Ekaterini
A. Vorbilder und InspirationsquellenWährend ältere Forschungsmeinungen, die das Erscheinen des Mönchtums auf eine Person oder eine Region zurückführen wollten, in den letzten Jahren widerlegt wurden, ist das zeitlich parallele Auftreten einander vergleichbarer Phänomene monastischer Lebenskonzeptionen in verschiedenen Gebieten der christl. Welt in den Fokus der Religionswissenschaft gerückt. Im 2. und 3. Jh. wählten Christen häufig ein Leben in Jungfräulichkeit mit Askese und Fasten. Als Inspiration für a…
Date: 2019-03-15

7.3. Heiligkeit, Frömmigkeit und Devianz

(3,120 words)

Author(s): Mitsiou, Ekaterini
A. Heiligkeit und HeiligenverehrungJeder Kult eines Heiligen begann in Byzanz auf einer lokalen Ebene. Rund um einen Mönch beispielsweise, der nach seinem Tod Wunder wirkte, entwickelte sich langsam durch Unterstützung seiner Schüler oder Anhänger ein lokaler Kult, der sich auf ein Kloster oder eine Kirche begrenzte. Für die Verbreitung des Kultes und die generelle, überregionale Anerkennung des jeweiligen Heiligen spielten die Niederschrift einer Vita und von Hymnen, das Fest am Tag des Todes des Heiligen, die Verehrung seiner Reliquien und die Anfertigung…
Date: 2019-03-15