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Federation

(3,092 words)

Author(s): Mohnhaupt, Heinz (Frankfurt/Main RWG)
Mohnhaupt, Heinz (Frankfurt/Main RWG) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) As reflected in this concept’s multi-faceted historical breadth, Federation is a many-layered institution.  As a basic concept in the history of human socialization, and in legal constitutional history as well, federation is able to represent both social and political organizations [10. 582f.]  Federation came about through the 'binding together' of socially or politically definable groups of individuals or organizational units s…

Citizen

(2,521 words)

Author(s): Mohnhaupt, Heinz (Frankfurt/Main RWG)
Mohnhaupt, Heinz (Frankfurt/Main RWG) [German version] A. Antiquity (CT) In Greek as well as in Roman Antiquity, the concept of citizenship (Greek polítes, Lat. civis) had a dual dimension: on the one hand, as citizen of a town or city, and on the other, as a citizen of the state, because a city state comprised both town and country (regarding the civis Romanus: Dig. 1,5,17; Dig. 50,1,1; Cod. Iust. 10,40,7). This is where the modern understanding of citizenship, predominantly in political and legal terms, but also in social, cultural, and economic ones, as…

Constitution

(6,405 words)

Author(s): Mohnhaupt, Heinz (Frankfurt/Main RWG)
Mohnhaupt, Heinz (Frankfurt/Main RWG) [German version] A. Issue Complex and Definition (CT) By the 18th cent., the concept of a constitution took on greater and greater breadth of definition, parallel to the formation of the modern state and the expansion of the ‘political realm’ in general [27. 1-59]. Today, its unstable plethora of definitions still influences the much discussed contemporary work on a ‘Constitution for Europe’. State and constitution are largely complementary concepts today, mutually depe…

Bürger

(1,978 words)

Author(s): Mohnhaupt, Heinz (Frankfurt/Main) RWG
Mohnhaupt, Heinz (Frankfurt/Main) RWG [English version] A. Antike (RWG) Sowohl in der griech. als auch in der röm. Ant. besitzt der Begriff des B. (griech. polítes, lat. civis) eine zweifache Dimension: nämlich einmal B. der Stadt und zum anderen B. des Staates, da es sich um Stadt und Land umfassende Stadtstaaten handelt (für den civis Romanus: Dig. 1,5,17; Dig. 50,1,1; Cod. Iust. 10,40,7). Der mod. B.-Begriff (v.a. polit., rechtlich - aber auch sozial, kulturell, ökonomisch) hat hier seinen Ausgangspunkt, der zu verschiedenen inhaltlichen Bed. füh…

Bund

(2,490 words)

Author(s): Mohnhaupt, Heinz (Frankfurt/Main) RWG
Mohnhaupt, Heinz (Frankfurt/Main) RWG [English version] A. Einleitung (RWG) Der B. ist eine vielschichtige Institution, was auch seine vielgestaltige histor. Begriffsbreite widerspiegelt. Als ein Grundbegriff menschlicher Sozialisationsgeschichte und rechtlicher Verfassungsgeschichte vermag B. gesellschaftliche und polit. Organisationen zu repräsentieren [10. 582f.]. Er kommt zustande durch die Ver-“Bindung” von gesellschaftlich oder/und polit. definitionsfähigen Personengruppierungen und Organisationsei…