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 Kitāb al-majālis

(771 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
The sessions Elias of Nisibis Date: Possibly 1026 Original Language: Arabic Description This work contains accounts of the seven debates that took place in seven sessions ( maj ā lis) between Elias and Abū l-Qāsim al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿAlī l-Maghribī, the vizier of the Marwānid ruler Naṣr al-Dawla ibn Aḥmad in Mayyāfāriqīn. Since the latter died in 1027, the meetings must have taken place before this. The topics covered are as follows: 1st session: God’s Unity ( tawḥīd), and Trinity, including the divine substance and hypostases (introduction and five chapters). 2nd session: the Incarnatio…

Unknown author

(56 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
The Apocalypse of Pseudo-Methodius (Latin) Date of Birth: Unknown, probably 7th c. Place of Birth: Unknown Date of Death: Unknown, probably 8th c. Place of Death: Unknown Biography -- Primary Sources of Information -- Secondary Sources of Information -- Works on Christian-Muslim Relations Revelatio S. Methodii de temporibus nouissimis Juan Pedro Monferrer Sala

 Kitāb al-radd ʿalā l-Yahūd wa-l-Naṣārā

(201 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
‘Refutation of the Jews and Christians’ Al-Bājī Date: Unknown; before 1315 Original Language: Arabic Description The work has not survived, and is only known from a passing reference in al-Subkī, Ṭabaqāt, vi, p. 228. Since it would have been written at a time of virulent anti-Jewish and anti-Christian feeling in Cairo, it may well have rehearsed familiar accusations against the client communities and complained about their arrogance and flouting of the regulations imposed upon them by the Pact of ʿUmar. It possibly incorpora…

 Tafṣīl al-zamān wa-maṣāliḥ al-abdān

(631 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
Division of seasons and benefits of bodies Rabīʿ ibn Zayd Date: About 961 or soon after Original Language: Arabic Description Rabīʿ ibn Zayd’s Kitāb tafṣīl al-zamān wa-maṣāliḥ al-abdān (also known as Kitāb al-azmān), which was evidently a liturgical calendar, is extant only as a series of quotations in the Kitāb al-anwāʾ of ʿArīb ibn Saʿīd al-Kātib (d. 980) (q.v.). This work is preserved in an Arabic version written in Hebrew letters, and also in a Latin translation, the Liber anoe. This translation contains more saints’ names than the Arabic. Many of the passages about Ch…

 Maqāla fī l-ājāl

(932 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
Kitāb al-ājāl, Fī l-aʿmār wa-l-ājāl, Kayfiyyat al-iʿtiqād fī l-aʿmār wa-l-ājālTreatise on lifespansBook on lifespans, On ages and lifespans, How to believe in ages and lifespans Abū Zayd Ḥunayn ibn Isḥāq al-ʿIbādī Date: Unknown Original Language: Arabic Description Ḥunayn ibn Isḥāq's Fī l-aʿmār wa-l-ājāl is preserved in Ch. 58 of the Majmūʿ uṣūl al-dīn ('Encyclopaedia of the fundamentals of religion') by the 13th-century Copto-Arabic author al-Muʾtaman ibn al-ʿAssāl. It deals with the general topic of the limitation ( ḥadd) of human beings' lives by God, and addresses th…

 Kitāb al-amwāl

(214 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
Property Al-Dāwudī Date: Early 11th century Original Language: Arabic Description As is suggested by its title, this work is concerned with legal questions, including the system of poll tax, which is dealt with from a Mālikī point of view. Significance The work specifies the rights and duties of Christians and Jews, who as ‘protected people’ are given the freedom to follow their own beliefs and rituals, though not allowed full political rights and sovereign status. It also refers polemically to their religious teachings, using general…

 Sharḥ asmāʾ Allāh al-ḥusnā

(182 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
Explanation of the beautiful names of God Ibn Barrajān Date: 12th century; before 1141 Original Language: Arabic Description Ibn Barrajān’s Sharḥ asmāʾ Allāh al-ḥusnā includes accounts of more than 113 names of God. Each is structured in three sections. In the first, the verbal root of each name is explained; in the second, mentions of the names in the Qurʾan and Hadiths are set out; and in the third, attaining the power of God’s names is explored. Significance In his explanations of the divine names, Ibn Barrajān makes frequent use of biblical quotations, showing no appa…

Llibre de la çuna e xara dels Moros

(101 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
Unknown author Date of Birth: Unknown; 14th century Place of Birth: Unknown; Catalonia Date of Death: Unknown; 15th century Place of Death: Unknown; probably Catalonia Biography Nothing is known about this translator, except the very few details that can be inferred from his work. He was a legal scholar who worked in Valencia, and was acquainted with both the Christian and the Islamic Mālikī legal codes. Primary Sources of Information - Secondary Sources of Information - Works on Christian-Muslim Relations Llibre de la çuna e xara dels Moros Juan Pedro Monferrer Sala

 Taʾrīkh iftitāḥ al-Andalus

(477 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
The history of the conquest of al-Andalus Ibn al-Qūṭiyya Date: After 977 Original Language: Arabic Description The Taʾrīkh iftitāḥ al-Andalus deals with the history of al-Andalus from the early days of the conquest up to the reign of the Caliph ʿAbd al-Raḥmān III. It prefaces this with a description of the Iberian Peninsula before the conquest. This work is thought to be by a disciple of Ibn al-Qūṭiyya, based on notes that contain his views about relations between the Umayyad rulers and their subjects. The various accounts offer a moralizing vision o…

The Chronicle of Se'ert

(27 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
Biography - Primary Sources of Information - Secondary Sources of Information - Works on Christian-Muslim Relations Taʾrīkh al-Siʿīrd Juan Pedro Monferrer Sala

 Kitāb al-rasāʾil wa-l-wasāʾil

(225 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
‘Treatises and devices’ Ibn ʿAtīq Date: Unknown; before 1235 Original Language: Arabic Description Kitāb al-rasāʾil wa-l-wasāʾil has survived in al-Wansharīsī’s Miʿyār (q.v.). This short polemical text gives an account of a debate that took place in the town of Tudmīr (Murcia) between a Muslim, Ibn Rashīq, and some Christian priests and monks concerning the inimitability of the Qur’an. The Christians compare the Qur’an with the Arab genre of the maqāma (which may be understood as an account of an individual’s activities related by a second person to a wider audience, and typically in sa…

 Al-mughrib fī ḥulā l-Maghrib

(665 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
'The wondrous work, on gems of the West' Ibn Saʿīd al-Maghribī Date: 1250 Original Language: Arabic Description This work contains nearly 900 biographies of Muslim authors, giving important information about lost works and quoting from them. It comprises 15 books ( asfār), the first six devoted to Egypt, the next three to Tunis ( Ifrīqiya) and North Africa ( bilād al-Barbar), and the remaining six to al-Andalus. This third group contains details about Christian al-Andalus, as well as Europe north of the Pyrenees ( al-arḍ al-kabīra). Significance In the last six books Ibn Saʻīd giv…

Fray Anselmo Turmeda

(720 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
ʿAbd Allāh al-Tarjumān, ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd Allāh al-Tarjumān al-Mayūrqī al-Muhtadī (al-Tūnisī), Turmeda Date of Birth: Approximately 1352 Place of Birth: Palma de Mallorca Date of Death: Between 1424 and 1430 Place of Death: Tunis Biography Anselmo Turmeda (Ancelm Turmeda in Catalan) was born in Palma, Mallorca. According to the Tuḥfa, at the age of six he started to study the Gospel with a learned priest, and two years later he started on Greek (‘the language of the Gospel’) and also logic. At the age of 14 he went to the University of Aragon in Lerida to study natural scie…

Al-Yabrūdī

(433 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
Abū l-Faraj Jirwajīs ibn Yūḥannā ibn Sahl ibn Ibrāhīm al-Yabrūdī Date of Birth: Unknown; late 10th c. Place of Birth: Yabrūd (Syria) Date of Death: Unknown; perhaps around 1050-60 Place of Death: Damascus Biography The Syrian Jacobite al-Yabrūdī was an expert in medicine. Born in humble circumstances in Yabrūd, he moved to Damascus to study. He travelled to Baghdad to increase his medical knowledge under the Nestorian Ibn al-Ṭayyib (q.v.), and he also studied other sciences such as logic. Finally, he returned to Damascus, where …

 Maqāla fī l-radd ʿalā l-Muslimīn

(82 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
Treatise in refutation of the Muslims Al-Yabrūdī Date: First half of the 11th century Original Language: Arabic Description The work is not extant, and is known only from Sbath, F ihris, Supplemente, ii, p. 32. Significance It is not possible to comment on the significance of this work. Manuscripts Inaccessible MS once in a private collection in Aleppo; see Sbath, F ihris, Supplemente, ii, p. 32. Editions & Translations Studies Keywords Chronological Category: 1000-1100 Juan Pedro Monferrer Sala

 Maqāmiʿ al-ṣulbān wa-marātiʿ (rawātiʿ) riyāḍ (rawḍat) ahl al-īmān

(593 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
Maqāmiʿ al-ṣulbānMallets for crosses and provender in the meadows of the faithful, Mallets for crosses Al-Khazrajī Date: Mid-1140s Original Language: Arabic Description Al-Khazrajī’s Maqāmiʿ al-ṣulbān was written when the author was around 20 years old (though al-Sharfī thinks that perhaps it was written by one of his pupils). The text, which belongs to the broad genre of polemics ( radd), was written by al-Khazrajī during his two years of captivity in Toledo in 1145-46/1147-48. The book comprises an attack on Islam by a Visigothic priest of Toledo ( qissīs min al-Qūṭ) and the answer…

 al-Mustakhraja min al-asmiʿa

(595 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
Al-ʿUtbiyyaThe Selection from what is heard, The ʿUtbiyya Abū ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad al-Umawī l-Sufyānī l-ʿUtbī l-Qurṭubī Date: Before 869 Original Language: Arabic Description Al-mustakhraja or al- ʿ Utbiyya contains legal questions ( masāʾil) on the authority of Mālik ibn Anas and his pupils, some of which relate to the process of Islamization. The work is preserved in Ibn Rushd al-Jadd, al-Bayān wa-l-taḥṣīl (12th c.). Al-ʿUtbī gathered more than 280 masāʾil dealing with Christians and Jews, most of which are related to the Christians of al-Andalus. Apart …

 Risāla ilā l-wazīr al-kāmil Abī l-Qāsim al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿĀlī

(223 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
Letter to the vizier, the most excellent Abū l-Qāsim al-Ḥusayn ibn ʿĀlī Elias of Nisibis Date: 1027 Original Language: Arabic Description Only three letters of the more extensive correspondence between Elias and Abū l-Qāsim ʿAlī l-Maghribī have survived: one addressed to Elias by the vizier; a long reply from Elias containing a summary of the ‘Sessions’ that had taken place the previous year (1026); and finally the vizier’s answer in which he applauds the fine style of Elias’ reply. Significance The texts of these three letters, together with the ‘Sessions’, represent the m…

Ibn al-Qūṭiyya

(367 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
Muḥammad ibn ʿUmar ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz ibn Ibrāhīm ibn ʿĪsā ibn Muzāḥim Date of Birth: After 900 Place of Birth: Unknown; possibly Cordova Date of Death: 977 Place of Death: Cordova Biography As is indicated by his laqab, ‘son of the Goth’, Ibn al-Qūṭiyya came from a noble Visigothic family of Seville. He himself says that he was descended from the Visigothic King Witiza. He was educated in Seville and Cordova by some of the most famous scholars of the period, including Qāsim ibn Aṣbagh, and he became known as a philologist, jurist a…

 Kitāb al-masāʾil al-sabʿ wa-l-khamsīn

(196 words)

Author(s): Monferrer Sala, Juan Pedro
The book of fifty-seven questions Ibn Albar al-Qūṭī Date: End of the 9th or beginning of the 10th century Original Language: Arabic Description The book is no longer extant. A few fragments are preserved in quotations by al-Imām al-Qurṭubī, which suggest that it was an anti-Muslim polemical treatise in which the doctrine of the Trinity was explained in order to describe the various heresies that had arisen over it. Significance The main interest of this work lies in the evidence it gives of the influence of Eastern Christian theological terminology used for the Tr…
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