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Isfendiyār Og̲h̲lu

(818 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J.H.
the name of a Turkoman dynasty, which founded the independent kingdom of Ḳasṭamonu on the decline of the Sald̲j̲ūḳ kingdom of Ḳonya, at the end of the 7th/13th century, in N.W. Asia Minor, in the ancient Paphlagonia. The name is taken from that of the best known ruler of this dynasty, Isfendiyār Bey; in the 10th/16th century we find the name Ḳi̊zi̊l Aḥmedlu, from Ḳi̊zi̊l Aḥmed, the brother of Ismāʿīl Bey. The Byzantines called the Isfendiyār Og̲h̲lu “the sons of Amurias” or of Omur. The founder …

Ibrāhīm K̲h̲ān

(396 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J.H.
, the ancestor of the Ibrāhīm-K̲h̲ānzāde family, was the son of Selīm II’s daughter Esmāk̲h̲ān Sulṭān (d. 993/1585) by her first marriage, to the Grand Vizier Soḳollu Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.]. According to a late tradition ( Ḥadīḳat al-d̲j̲awāmiʿ , ii, 38), perhaps based on the misconception that the sons of princesses were not allowed to live [see dāmād ], his birth was at first concealed. He first appears as ḳapi̊d̲j̲i̊-bas̲h̲i̊ , in Muḥarram 1003/September 1594. By 1019/1610 he was beglerbegi of Bosna—a promotion which was indeed contrary to Meḥemmed …

Fāḍil Bey

(344 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J.H.
, Ḥüseyn (ca. 1170/1757-1225/1810) also known as Fāḍil-i Enderūnī , Ottoman poet celebrated for his erotic works, was a grandson of Ẓāhir Āl ʿUmar [ q.v.] of ʿAkkā, who rebelled against the Porte in the seventies of the 18th century. Taken to Istanbul in 1190/1776 by the ḳapudān pas̲h̲a G̲h̲āzī Ḥasan after his grandfather and father had been slain in battle, he was brought up in the Palace. An amatory intrigue led to his expulsion in 1198/1783-4, and for twelve years he led a vagabond life in poverty in Istanbul. Ḳaṣīde s addressed to Selīm III and the statesmen …

Gülk̲h̲āne

(161 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J.H.
, (modern Turkish Gülhane) the “House of roses”, or Gülk̲h̲āne Meydāni̊, is the name of a part of the gardens which lie along the Sea of Marmora on the east side of the Topkapi̊ Sarāyi̊ in Istanbul [ q.v.]; the name is derived from the fact that in olden days the building, in which the rose sweetmeats for the use of the court were prepared, stood there. The place is famous in history because the celebrated firman of Sultan ʿAbd al-Mad̲j̲īd, the so-called Ḵh̲aṭṭ- i s̲h̲erīf promulgating the reforms, was publicly proclaimed there on Sunday 26 S̲h̲aʿbān 1255/3…

Dāmād

(493 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J.H.
, a Persian word meaning son-in-law, used as a title by sons-in-law of the Ottoman Sultans. Under the early Sultans, princesses ( sulṭān ) of the reigning house were occasionally given in marriage to the vassal princes of Asia Minor, for example, to the Ḳaramānog̲h̲lu, and even to the vezirs and generals of the sovereign; the case of the saint Amīr Sulṭān of Bursa, who married a daughter of Bāyazīd I is, however, unique not only for that but also for later periods. We afterwards find Grand Vezirs…

(al-)Ḳusṭanṭīniyya

(1,909 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J.H.
, Constantinople. 1. To the Ottoman Conquest (1453). The city, which Constantine the Great on 11 May 330 raised to be the capital of the Eastern Empire and which was called after him, was known to the Arabs as Ḳusṭanṭīniyya (in poetry also Ḳusṭanṭīna , with or without the article); the older name Byzantion ( Buzanṭiyā and various spellings) was also known to them, as well as the fact that the later Greeks, as at the present day, used to call Constantinople simply ἥ πόλις as “the city” par excellence (Masʿūdī, iii, 406 = § 1291 …

Deñizli

(583 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J. H.
, capital of the Sand̲j̲aḳ of the same name in the province of Aidīn (Smyrna) with a population of 20,000 including 2000 Turkish-speaking Greeks, in the xivth century supplanted Lādīḳ (cf. the form Λαυδίκη in Cinnamus, p. 25), the ancient Laodicea ad Lycum, the ruins of which still exist at Eski-ḥiṣār on the Čuruksu, near the railway station of Gond̲j̲eli, 6 miles from Deñizli. In the wars of the Komnenoi with the Sald̲j̲ūḳs (xith and xiith centuries) Laodicea was repeatedly captured by the latter. Alexius I occupied it for a brief period in 1098 (Anna Comnena, ed. Reifferscheid, ii. 118 et se…

Ḥamza

(439 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J. H.
, called the Siliḥdār, was born about 1140 in the district of Dewelu Ḳarahiṣār, the son of a landed Ag̲h̲a, called Meḥemmed; he began his career in 1156 in the ḥalwa-k̲h̲āne (honeybakery) of the Imperial kitchen (cf. v. Hammer, Staatsverfassung etc., ii. 31), but soon his gifts won him a position among the pages ( enderūn-i humāyūn, where he won the favour of Muṣṭafā III; When the latter came to the throne in the 21st Ṣafar 1171, he at once appointed Ḥamza his siliḥdār (sword-bearer, see v. Hammer, l. c. ii. 238 note), afterwards granted him the rank of vizier and betrothed him to t…

Ibn Ras̲h̲īd

(761 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J. H.
, the name of the Wahhābī rulers ( S̲h̲aik̲h̲ al-Mas̲h̲āʾik̲h̲) of Ḏj̲abal S̲h̲ammar in Nad̲j̲d. The founder of the dynasty was: I. ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAlī al-Ras̲h̲īd oftheḎj̲aʿfar clan of the S̲h̲ammar tribe of al-ʿAbda, 1250— 1263 (1835—1847). In 1835 he seized the town of Ḥāʾil and deposed S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Ṣāliḥ of the Ibn ʿAlī family, which had previously ruled the Ḏj̲abal S̲h̲ammar ¶ under the suzerainty of the Wahhābī princes of Darʿīya [q. v.] and Riyāḍ. He was recognised by Faiṣal, Amīr of Riyāḍ, who according to tradition owed his throne to him, and with th…

Ḏj̲alālzāde Muṣṭafā Čelebi

(482 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J. H.
, known as Kod̲j̲a Nis̲h̲and̲j̲i, belonged to Tossia in Asia Minor where his father held the office of Ḳāḍī, entered the service of the state in the reign of Selīm I as a clerk in the Imperial Dīwān, accompanied the Grand Vizier Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a on his mission to Egypt in 930 (1524) (v. Hammer, Geschichle des Osm. Reich., iii. 39 et seq.) and on his return was appointed Raʾīs al-Kuttāb (Secretary of State). In 941 (1535) he accompanied Sulaimān I on the Persian campaign and was promoted on this occasion to be Nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲ī (Keeper of the Great Seal, tewḳīʿt), which office he held till 964 (15…

Ibn Saʿūd

(2,691 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J. H.
, the name of the Wahhābī dynasty of Darʿīya [q. v.] and Riyāḍ. Muḥammad b. Saʿūd, the founder of this dynasty was a member of the Muḳrin clan of the tribe of Masālik̲h̲ of the Wuld ʿAlī, who are considered to belong to the great ʿAnaza group of Arabs. His father Saʿūd ruled over Darʿīya and died in the fourth decade of the xith century a. h., i. e. between 1727 and 1737; according to the genealogy of the Ibn Sāʿūd, he left 3 sons besides Muḥammad: T̲h̲unaiyān, Mus̲h̲ārī and Farḥān. The suzerainty of the Wahhābīs of Darʿīya and later of Riyāḍ has remained in t…

Fanār

(338 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J. H.
, the name of the Greek quarter of Stambul in which the Oecumenian Patriarch took up his residence after the conquest of the town by Meḥemmed II. Down to 1587 the patriarchate was in the ancient Byzantine church of the Pammakaristos; when this was transformed into a mosque (Fetḥiye) in that year, the Patriarch moved his see to the little church of St. George. At quite an early period there settled round the see, in addition to the ecclesiastical and secular officials of the patriarchate, the few…

Ḳara Deniz

(1,190 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J. H.
, the Turkish name for the Black Sea, the Pontus Euxinus (abbreviated to Pontus) of ancient and Byzantine geography. The Arab geographers took over the Greek names Pontus and Maeotis (Sea of Azov) in the forms Bunṭus and Maʾūṭis, which early became Nīṭas̲h̲ and Mānīṭas̲h̲ in Arabic writing and language (Juynboll on Marāṣid al-Iṭṭilāʾ, iv. 194) and in these corrupt forms have survived down to the latest works of Oriental geography. Other names were also used, for example Sea of Trebizond ( Baḥr Ṭarābazunda), Sea of the Crimea ( Baḥr Ḳirim), Russian Sea ( Baḥr al-Rūs; cf. mer de Rossia in Ville…

Enwerī

(379 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J. H.
, al-Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ Saʿdullāh, Efendi, a native of Trebizond, entered the higher Turkish civil service as Ḵh̲od̲j̲a (superintendent of a dīwān) and successively filled the office of Tes̲h̲rifatd̲j̲i (1184—1187), Ḏj̲ebed̲j̲iler Kātibi (1187—1190), Tes̲h̲rifatd̲j̲i (1190—1196), Mewḳūfātd̲j̲i (1196—1199), Büyük Tezkered̲j̲i (1197) and from 1200 to his death with several breaks that of an Anadolu Muḥāsebed̲j̲isi. At the end of 1182 he was also given the post of Historiographer Royal ( Waḳʿa Nuwīs), which he held till the end of 1197 with an interval of 18 months (4th Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 118…

Gülk̲h̲āne

(143 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J. H.
, the “house of roses”, or Gül-k̲h̲āne Meidānī, is the name of a part of the gardens, which lie along the Sea of Marmora on the east side of the old imperial Serai in Stambul; the name is derived from the fact that in olden days the building, in which the rose sweetmeats for the use of the court were prepared, stood there. The place is famous in history because the celebrated firman of Sulṭān ʿAbd al-Mad̲j̲īd, the so-called Ḵh̲aṭṭ-i s̲h̲erīf promulgating the reforms, was publicly proclaimed there on Sunday the 26th S̲h̲aʿbān 1255 (3rd November 1839); cf. the description in Rosen, Geschichte der …

Fener

(451 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J.H.
, the name of a quarter of Istanbul which, according to tradition, was allotted to the Greeks by Meḥemmed II after the conquest in 857/1453; for the topography, monuments, etc. see istanbul. After the conquest the seat of the Greek Patriarch was transferred from St. Sophia to the Church of the Holy Apostles, and three years later to the nearby Church of the Pammakaristos. In 994/1586, when this church was converted into a mosque (Fetḥiye D̲j̲āmiʿi), the Patriarch moved down into the Fener quarter, to establish himself finally in 1011/1603 at the Church of St. George ¶ (re-built in 1720), s…

Ḥusain Pas̲h̲a

(644 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J. H.
, better known under the denomination Ag̲h̲ā Ḥusain Pas̲h̲a, or Ag̲h̲ā Pas̲h̲a, ¶ the son of a certain Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲i Muṣṭafā, was born in Adrianople in 1190 (1776) though popular tradition considers Rūsčuk as his birth-place. As his father had moved to Bender he was enlisted there in the 9th band ( bülük) of the Janissaries and came to Constantinople in 1203 (1788-1789). Later on he took part in the Russian War (1807— 1812) and soon occupied a prominent position among the usta (sergeants) of the Janissaries. After having been promoted to the rank of zag̲h̲ard̲j̲i bas̲h̲i the Grand Vizier, S…

Ḏj̲unaid

(904 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J. H.
, a clever and cunning adventurer, said to have been a member of the royal family of Aidinog̲h̲lu (Leunclavius, Hist. Mus., 531, ʿĀs̲h̲iḳpas̲h̲azāde, p. 78), was born in Smyrna, where his father, the “Karasubas̲h̲i” i. e. the chief magistrate (according to Ḏj̲unaid’s coins his name was Ibrāhīm), had been given an office by Bāyazīd I. After Tīmūr’s retreat from Asia Minor, Ḏj̲unaid rose against the native rulers who had been restored by Tīmūr, the Aidinog̲h̲lu ʿĪsā and ʿOmarbeg, and deposed them with the help of Mīr…

Emīr Sulṭān

(460 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J. H.
, i. e. S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Meḥemmed b. ʿAlī al-Ḥusainī al-Buk̲h̲ārī, also called Saiyid Meḥemmed Buk̲h̲ārī, Saiyid Emīr Sulṭān, Emīr Saiyid (ʿAs̲h̲iḳpas̲h̲azāde, p. 148, Haniwald’s chronicle in Leuncl., Hist. Mus., p. 541, 543, whence ΜηρσαίτηΣ in Ḳananos), the great patron saint of Brusa, born about 770 a. h., migrated to Asia Minor from Buk̲h̲ārā and settled in Brusa where he died of the plague in the odour of sanctity in 833 a. h. According to tradition Emīr Sulṭān was held in high esteem by Bāyazīd I. Yilderim, whose daughter, Ḵh̲ūndī Sulṭān, he married; when the S…

Constantinople

(9,912 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J. H.
Constantinople to the Ottoman conquest (1453). The Name. The city, which Constantine the Great on the 11th May 330 raised to be the capital of the Eastern Empire and which was called after him, was known to the Arabs as Ḳosṭanṭinīya (in poetry also Ḳosṭanṭīna, with or without the article); the older name Byzantion (buzanṭia, in various spellings) was also known to them as well as the fact that the later Greeks, as at the present day, used to call Constantinople simply ἡ πόλιΣ as “the city” par excellence (Masʿūdī, ix. 337; Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, i. 235; A…
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