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Year

(714 words)

Author(s): Morrison, Robert G.
The time required for the earth to complete a revolution around the sun. ʿĀm and sana, the qurʾānic Arabic words for “year,” raise questions of both meaning and chronology. q 29:14, “1000 years (alf sanatin) save 50 (khamsīn ʿāman),” contains both words and implies their equivalence. Al-Zamakhsharī (d. 538/1144; see exegesis of the qurʾān: classical and medieval ) explains in the Kashshāf that the repetition of the same word should be avoided and that writing “950 years” would require more words. The Qurʾān's phrasing, as opposed to “1000,” also conveyed precision. q 22:47, “a day wit…

Mīrak al-Bukhārī

(399 words)

Author(s): Morrison, Robert G.
Shams al-Dīn Muḥammad ʿAlī b. Mubārakshāh Mīrak al-Bukhārī (d. c. 740/1340) wrote on philosophy ( ḥikma), astronomy, and geometry. Little is known about his life aside from what is found in his works. He was the author of a sharḥ (commentary) on the Ḥikmat al-ʿayn (“The wisdom of the source”) by the philosopher Najm al-Dīn al-Kātibī (d. 675/1276–7) and one on the Hidāyat al-ḥikma (“The guidance of wisdom”) by the philosopher Athīr al-Dīn al-Abharī (d. c. 663/1265). The Sharḥ Ḥikmat al-ʿayn influenced later works of kalām (theology), such as the commentary on the Kitāb al-mawāqif (“The bo…
Date: 2019-08-29