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(1,105 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes
Definition 1. An endowment or foundation produces income through certain property or assets, provided by the founder, with which a long-term purpose, stipulated by the founder, is to be financed. Unlike a donation, then, an endowment is not a simple act, but a continuously repeated gift, bestowed without a time limit. Antiquity 2. a) From ancient times to the present, comparable institutions are found in the most varying cultural milieus, as in ancient Egypt, Greco-Roman antiquity, Judaism, Islam, and Hinduism. With ancient foundations, the found…

 Eis ton neon martyra Michaēl

(1,745 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes
‘On Michael the new martyr’ Theodore Metochites Date: Between 1305 and 1324 Original Language: Greek Description Metochites’ rhetorical writings were collected during his own lifetime (according to Ševčenko, Etudes, commissioned and redacted by Metochites himself); they are to be found in Codex Philosophicus Graecus 95, in the Vienna State Library. It seems that the works are, at least more or less, in chronological order. The oration on the neomartyr Michael of Alexandria (in the MS margin the explanatory note appears: Eis ton hagion martyra Michaēl ton neon ton kat’ Aigyp…

Unknown author

(54 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes
Doctrina Iacobi nuper baptizati Date of Birth: Unknown Place of Birth: Unknown Date of Death: Unknown Place of Death: Unknown Biography -- Primary Sources of Information -- Secondary Sources of Information -- Works on Christian-Muslim Relations Didaskalia Iakōbou neobaptistou, ‘Doctrina Iacobi nuper baptizati’,  ‘Teachings of Jacob, the newly baptized’ Johannes Pahlitzsch

 Al-muwāʿiẓ allatī hiyā bi-rasm dawr al-sana kullihā al-ḥudūd wa-l-aʿyād maʿan min qawl al-qiddīs Athānāsiyūs batriyark Ūrshalīm

(609 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes
‘The sermons for the cycle of the year and all Sundays and feast days together as delivered by the holy Athanasius, Patriarch of Jerusalem’ Athanasius II, Patriarch of Jerusalem Date: Presumably between 1230 and 1244 Original Language: Greek Description In the manuscripts, this still unpublished collection of sermons is attributed to an unidentified Athanasius, Patriarch of Jerusalem (the title above is given in MSS Berlin State Library – orient. Mf. 971, and Jerusalem, Holy Sepulchre – arab. 221). Going by its formal composition, wh…

Peter of Damascus

(287 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes
Biography Peter was metropolitan of Damascus in the first half of the 8th century. John of Damascus wrote his Contra Jacobitas on his behalf (Kotter, iv, p. 109), and he was also the recipient of John’s Libellus de recta sententia ( PG 94, col. 1421A). According to Theophanes and Michael the Syrian, the Caliph al-Walīd II (r. 743-44) ordered that Peter should have his tongue cut out and be exiled to Yemen ( Arabia Felix) because he did not abstain from ‘reproving the impiety of the Arabs and Manichees’. Despite having no tongue, he was still able to recite the liturgy…

 Title unknown

(425 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes
A treatise against Islam Peter of Damascus Date: Unknown Original Language: Greek Description It is uncertain whether this work ever existed. Khoury ( Les théologiens byzantins, p. 40), though without giving any reference, states that ‘it is said’ Peter wrote a now lost treatise against Islam in Arabic. But he doubts this, since he follows Peeters’ argument that Peter of Damascus should be identified with Peter of Capitolias (q.v.). In contrast, Nasrallah (‘Dialogue islamo-chrétien’, p. 126) mentions that the work is tr…

Manuel Gabalas

(665 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes
Manouēl Gabalas, Matthaios of Ephesus Date of Birth: About 1271/72 Place of Birth: Philadelphia, Lydia Date of Death: Before 1359/60 Place of Death: Probably Constantinople Biography Gabalas was born in Philadelphia, Lydia, in about 1271/72. In 1309 he began his church career under the local metropolitan, Theoleptus, and witnessed the Turkish siege of Philadelphia in 1310. Because of a dispute with Theoleptus, Gabalas went to Constantinople in 1315, and remained there from 1317 onwards. In the capital, he established con…

 Letters 54, 55, 57

(685 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes
- Manuel Gabalas Date: Between 1339 and 1341 Original Language: Greek Description In his letters, Manuel Gabalas describes in much detail the situation of his church under Turkish rule. In Letter 55, he reports that he travelled to Smyrna to meet Umur Beg, who received him only after some time. With a letter from the emir, he went to Ephesus, where a very small church and an insufficient piece of land was assigned to him by the local governor Khiḍir, Umur’s brother. The governor was unable to return to him …

ʿAlī b. ʿĪsā

(583 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes
ʿAlī b. ʿĪsā (fl. first half of the fifth/eleventh century) was a Christian oculist, famous for his Tadhkirat al-kaḥḥālīn, a comprehensive work on ophthalmology. He was a pupil of the Nestorian physician Abū l-Faraj b. al-Ṭayyib (d. 435/1043), who practised at al-ʿAḍudī hospital in Baghdād and was renowned for his commentaries on Galen. Bar Hebraeus ( Chronicon ecclesiasticum, ed. and trans. Jean Baptiste Abbeloos and Thomas Joseph Lamy, Louvain 1872–7, 3:275–8) provides some information about ʿAlī b. ʿĪsā's life and social background. He was one of the notables (mshamməhē) of the …
Date: 2020-09-16

Theodore Metochites

(794 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes
Theodōros Metochitēs, Theoleptus, Theolēptos Date of Birth: 1270/71 Place of Birth: Constantinople Date of Death: 1332 Place of Death: Constantinople Biography Theodore Metochites was born, probably in 1270/71, in Constantinople. However, at the age of 13, he had to leave the capital since his father, a supporter of the church union with Rome that was concluded by Michael VIII Palaeologus, was exiled to Asia Minor by the new emperor, Andronicus II (1282-1328). In 1290, however, Metochites attracted the attention of Andronicus II when he was in Nicea, and entered the imperial service. I…

 Tou autou epistolē hēn ex Asias, aichmalōtos ōn, pros tēn heautou ekklēsian apesteilen

(2,101 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes
Tou Thessalonikēs hote healōLetter of the same [Gregory Palamas] which, as a captive, he sent from Asia to his church; Letter to his church, (Letter) of the Thessalonian (bishop) when he was taken captive; Letter to an anonymous recipient Gregory Palamas Date: July 1354 Original Language: Greek Description Palamas’s Letter to his flock in Thessaloniki is a complex document, consisting of three parts: a detailed account of his capture in March 1354 and the events of his captivity until he was transferred to Nicea in July 1354 (§§ 1-17 in the Ph…

Gregory Palamas

(742 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes
Grēgorios Palamas Date of Birth: 1294 Place of Birth: Constantinople Date of Death: 14 November 1359 Place of Death: Thessaloniki Biography Gregory Palamas was born in 1294 (this is according to Beyer, PLP; the traditional dating is 1296) in Constantinople, the son of a senator. Since his father was also the teacher of the grandson of the Emperor Andronicus II Palaeologus, Palamas was brought up in the imperial court. At the age of about 20, however, he left the capital for Mount Athos to become a monk. After spending about si…

Cento of the true emperor and Oracula Leonis

(84 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes
Biography Nothing is known of the anonymous redactor (possibly of the 12th or even 11th century) of 16 oracles on future Byzantine emperors. He uses older texts that were already known in the 9th century, and it is very probable (but not certain) that he lived in Constantinople. Primary Sources of Information Secondary Sources of Information Works on Christian-Muslim Relations Tou sophōtatou basileōs Leontos chrēsmoi; Peri tou thrēlloumenou ptōchou kai eklektou basileōs ... Johannes Pahlitzsch

 Didaskalia Iakōbou neobaptistou, ‘Doctrina Iacobi nuper baptizati’,  ‘Teachings of Jacob, the newly baptized’

(892 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes
- Unknown author Date: 634 (Hoyland, p. 58) / 640s (Déroche and Dagron, p. 247) / 7th century (Speck, pp. 268-69) Original Language: Greek Description The Doctrina Jacobi is an anti-Jewish treatise purportedly composed in Africa in 634 against the background of Heraclius' order to compel all Jews to convert to Christianity. The text consists of a fictitious dialogue between the Jewish merchant Jacob and his cousin Justus, who was from Palestine. During a business trip to Carthage, Jacob was forcibly baptized, but he was s…

 Responsio domini Athanasii Patriarchae Hierosolymorum ad Georgium Metropolitae Corcyrae

(435 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes
‘Response of Athanasius, Patriarch of Jerusalem, to George, Metropolitan of Corfu’ Athanasius II, Patriarch of Jerusalem Date: 1240 Original Language: Greek Description The correspondence between Athanasius and George Bardanes, Metropolitan of Corfu, consists of two letters preserved in a Latin translation made by Federigo Mezio, Bishop of Termoli, from the beginning of the 17th century (Hoeck and Loenertz, Nikolaos-Nektarios von Otranto, p. 148). The editors of George Bardanes’ letter date it to around 1236. However, Athanasius’ reply seems perfectly to…

Athanasius II, Patriarch of Jerusalem

(641 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes
Athanasios Date of Birth: Unknown Place of Birth: Unknown Date of Death: 1244 Place of Death: Jerusalem Biography Nothing is known about Athanasius’ life before he became Patriarch of Jerusalem, except that he was archimandrite of an unnamed monastery (colophon of MS Sinaiticus Gr. 660 [254]) and that he originally came from the West (diptychs of the Orthodox Church of Jerusalem in Pavlov, Kritichskie opyty). It is not even clear when he became patriarch. The only clue is the tombstone of Euthymius, his predecessor, from the monastery of St Catherine on Mt S…

 Euchē ekphōnētheisai epi tē eis tēn Epheson eisodō hēmōn

(176 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes
‘Prayer to be spoken at our entry to Ephesus’ Manuel Gabalas Date: 1339 Original Language: Greek Description As its title indicates, this prayer was delivered on the occasion of Gabalas’ entry into Ephesus, his metropolitan see, in 1339. In it, Gabalas asks God to provide him with the same power as the apostles whom he sent to ‛the nations’ ( ta ethnē). In general, the intention of the prayer is to request from God the salvation of the oppressed Christians, using various biblical motifs. Significance If this prayer was actually uttered when Gabalas entered Ephesus, it is a very …


(254 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes
[English version] (hebr. šḵæm; Συχεμ, vgl. Gn 12,6, lat. Sychem). Stadt in Samaria ca. 2 km südöstl. von Nāblus zw. den Bergen Ebal und Garizim auf dem Hügel Tall Balāṭa gelegen und h. z. T. von dem danach benannten arab. Dorf Balāṭa bedeckt. Strategische und wirtschaftliche Bed. erlangte S. aufgrund seiner Lage an einem zentralen Verkehrsknotenpunkt im Straßennetz Samarias. Schon um 3500 v. Chr. besiedelt, wurde S. im 2. Jt. mehrfach von Äg. angegriffen und zerstört. Nach dem Tod Salomos fand dort auch…


(300 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes
[English version] (Τιβηριάς, hebr. ṭbry). Stadt in Galilaea, am Westufer des Sees Genezareth gelegen. Von Herodes [4] Antipas, dem Tetrarchen von Galilaea und Peraia, um 20 n. Chr. als neue Hauptstadt anstelle von Sepphoris gegründet. Die Namensgebung nach Kaiser Tiberius [1], die hell. Stadtverfassung und Planung mit der Einsetzung einer bulḗ sowie der Anlage von Cardo, Bad und Stadion sind Ausdruck der engen Verbindung des Antipas zu Rom. T. wurde unter Zwangsmaßnahmen mit jüd. Bauern und Freigelassenen aus der Umgebung besiedelt. Griechen …


(342 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes
[English version] (Σέπφωρις, vgl. Ios. ant. Iud. 14,5,9 u.ö.) Stadt in Galilaea, an der OW-Verbindung zw. Ptolemais [8] (Akko) und Tiberias gelegen. Schon in der Eisenzeit besiedelt, war S. unter Alexandros [16] Iannaios um 100 v. Chr. stark befestigt. Verm. schon vor der Einrichtung eines der fünf Synhedrien zur Verwaltung Iudaeas durch den röm. Statthalter Gabinius [I 2] 57 v. Chr. war S. die wichtigste Stadt Galilaeas. 37 v. Chr. fiel sie an Herodes [1]. Nach dessen Tod 4 v. Chr. kam es zu Unru…
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