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Āyāt al-aḥkām

(1,796 words)

Author(s): Pakatchi, Ahmad | Harris, Russell
Āyāt al-aḥkām: ‘verses of the rules’, is a phrase applied those verses of the Qurʾān from which legal rulings are derived. It was well known amongst later jurists that the number of āyāt al-aḥkām is five hundred (e.g. see al-ʿAllāma al-Ḥillī, 242; al-Miqdād al-Suyūrī, 1/5); when the jurists refer to ‘the Book’ as their foremost evidence and legal support regarding legislation they are referring to these verses. The difference between āyāt al-aḥkām and the other transmitted proofs is that they are deemed to be of definitive provenance ( qaṭʿiyat al-ṣudūr), but the literal meaning of …

Abū al-Ḥasan al-Bisyawī

(1,472 words)

Author(s): Pakatchi, Ahmad | Rezaee, Maryam
Abū al-Ḥasan al-Bisyawī, ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. ʿAlī, was an Ibāḍī scholar who lived in the 4th/10th century in Oman. His nisba ‘al-Bisyāwī’ or ‘al-Bisyānī’ refers to Bisyā, one of the regions of Bahlā in Oman (al-ʿIbrī, 3). Neither the date of his birth nor the date of his death is given in the sources. However, it can be reckoned that he was born in the second quarter of the 4th/10th century, and that he died in the first quarter of the 5th/11th century. His father, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī, was also a learned man and Abū al-Ḥasan probably got his first taste of knowledge from him (Abū al-Ḥasan, Mukhtaṣar, 347…

ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿUmar

(3,017 words)

Author(s): Pakatchi, Ahmad | Lahouti, Hassan
ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿUmar, Abū ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (ca. 11 before hijra–73/611–692), was a son of ʿUmar b. al-Khaṭṭāb, and a famous Companion of the Prophet. He embraced Islam as a child and was 10 years old, or perhaps younger, when he accompanied his father on the hijra to Medina. He was 15 when he took part in the battle of Khandaq (‘the Trench’). From then on he was present at important events, such as the battle of Muʾta, the Bayʿat al-riḍwān (‘the oath of good pleasure’, see Q 48:18) and the conquest of Mecca (al-Wāqidī, 2/453, 488 et passim; Ibn Saʿd, 4/142–143; Ibn ʿAbd al-Bar…

Abū al-Ṣalāḥ al-Ḥalabī

(3,455 words)

Author(s): Pakatchi, Ahmad | Umar, Suheyl
Abū al-Ṣalāḥ al-Ḥalabī, al-Taqī b. Najm b. ʿUbayd Allāh (374–447/984–1055), was a Shiʿi faqīh (jurist) and mutakallim (theologian) from al-Shām. He was born in Aleppo (Ḥalab) and he seems to have received his education there. According to Ibn Abī Ṭayy, he made three journeys to Iraq and studied under the scholars of that land. However, since he makes no mention of the presence of al-Shaykh al-Mufīd, one may conclude that his travels took place after al-Shaykh al-Mufīd's death in 413/1022 (see al-Dhahabī, 11/404). According to al-Ṭūsī ( Rijāl, 457) Abū al-Ṣalāḥ went to Baghdad to s…

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Mahdī

(1,348 words)

Author(s): Pakatchi, Ahmad | Lahouti, Hassan
ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Mahdī, Abū Saʿīd al-ʿAnbarī (135–198/752–814), was a muḥaddith (traditionist) and faqīh (jurist) from Baṣra. From his early youth he studied ¶ ḥadīth under such great scholars as Ḥammād b. Zayd, Ḥammād b. Salama, Sufyān al-Thawrī and Shuʿba b. al-Ḥajjāj, both in his hometown of Baṣra and in Kūfa. He then went to the Ḥijāz, and during a period in Medina he learnt from the great masters ( shaykhs) of that region such as ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. al-Mājishūn and attended the circle of Mālik b. Anas for a while. He also had scholarly dialogues and exchanges o…

Dahr (in the Qurʾān)

(1,670 words)

Author(s): Pakatchi, Ahmad | Esots, Janis
a conception of ‘time’, which survives from the pre-Islamic period; both the Qurʾān and the ḥadīth criticise religious faith in dahr, conceived as a kind of cosmic force or inevitable fatality. The verbal noun of its triliteral root d-h-r in Arabic refers to descending or falling, in a pejorative sense (although it is not used in this sense in the Qurʾān). The passive participle, madhūr, means ‘calamity-stricken’ or ‘afflicted by a disaster’. The primary meaning of the word dahr as it occurs in the Qurʾān (Q 76:1, ‘Hath there come upon man any period of time in which he w…

ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Kawwāʾ

(2,046 words)

Author(s): Pakatchi, Ahmad | Gholami, Rahim
ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Kawwāʾ, Abū ʿAmr (d. after 44/664) was a prominent leader of the Khārijīs during the formative stage of the Khārijī movement. Al-Kawwāʾ (which means a cowardly or weak-hearted person) was the laqab or title of his father ʿAmr b. Nuʿmān, who was a genealogist, a skill inherited from his forefathers, and which he then handed down to his descendants, the Banū Kawwāʾ (al-Jāḥiẓ, 1/185; Ibn al-Nadīm, 102). ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Kawwāʾ was himself a Kūfan, from the Banū Yashkur, a branch of the tribe of Bakr b. Wāʾil (Ibn a…

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Abī Rawwād

(1,556 words)

Author(s): Pakatchi, Ahmad | Gholami, Rahim
ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Abī Rawwād, Abū ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (d. 159/776), a famous Meccan scholar in the fields of ḥadīth and ethics ( akhlāq). His father's name is recorded as ‘Maymūn’ or ‘Ayman’. He was a client ( mawlā) of Mughīra b. al-Muhallab, one of the Azdī notables of the Umayyad period. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz grew up in a family of traditionists and in addition to his father, other members of his clan were eager to acquire knowledge (Ibn Saʿd, 5/493; Ibn Zabr, 159; Ibn Mākūlā, 4/105). Taking into consideration what is said about his lifespan …

Abū al-Wazīr

(1,252 words)

Author(s): Pakatchi, Ahmad | Gholami, Rahim
Abū al-Wazīr, ʿUmar b. Muṭarrif b. Muḥammad al-ʿAbdī (d. 188/804), was a man of letters, a genealogist ( nassāba), and also the secretary to several of the early ʿAbbāsid caliphs. Al-Ṣābiʾ called him ‘Abū al-Wazīr b. Hānī’, possibly because of the name of one of his forefathers (p. 28). The title ‘al-ʿAbdī’ indicates that he was a mawlā of the Banū ʿAbd al-Qays tribe (Abū al-Faraj, 3/46; Yāqūt, 16/72). His father, Muṭarrif, was a scribe from Marw (al-Jahshiyārī, 227) and entered the service ¶ of the ʿAbbāsid al-Mahdī, al-Manṣūr's heir-apparent, when he was staying in Persia (14…

Burayda b. al-Ḥuṣayb

(985 words)

Author(s): Pakatchi, Ahmad | Abbas, Najam
b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Aslamī (d. 63/683), a Companion of the Prophet. Although his name was ʿĀmir, he was known as Burayda (Ibn Ḥajar, Nuzhat, 1/120). Nothing is recorded about his life before he embraced Islam. According to reports, when the Prophet Muḥammad migrated to Medina, he passed by a locality called Ghamīm, and when Burayda came face to face with the Prophet, he embraced Islam on the spot (al-Ṭabarī, 534; Khalīfa, 68; Ibn Ḥajar, al-Iṣāba, 1/146). Subsequent to his conversion, about eighty members of the al-Aslamī tribe also embraced Islam, a fact which reflects B…

al-Bukhārī, Muḥammad

(9,037 words)

Author(s): Pakatchi, Ahmad | Gholami, Rahim
b. Ismāʿīl b. Ibrāhīm al-Juʿfī (13 Shawwāl 194–1 Shawwāl 256/24 July 810–1 September 870), one of the most prominent Sunni traditionists and the author of one of ‘the six books ( al-kutub al-sitta)’ or ‘the six authentic ones ( al-ṣiḥāḥ al-sitta)’, referring to the collections of prophetic sayings deemed to be of the highest degree of authenticity within Sunni Islam. This work is known either as al-Jāmiʿ al-ṣaḥīḥ or, more popularly, as Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī. His ancestor, Bardizbah (Bazdizbah), was a Soghdian peasant and a Zoroastrian. His nisba al-Juʿfī derived from his great-grandfa…

Abū Dāwūd al-Sijistānī

(5,477 words)

Author(s): Pakatchi, Ahmad | Khodaverdian, Shahram
Abū Dāwūd al-Sijistānī, Sulaymān b. al-Ashʿath b. Isḥāq b. Bashīr b. Shaddād b. ʿAmr b. ʿImrān al-Azdī (202–275/817–888), was a well-known traditionist and ¶ compiler of the ḥadīth collection known as Sunan Abī Dāwūd, the third of the six canonical books of ḥadīth ( al-Ṣiḥāḥ al-sitta). The title ‘al-Sijistānī’, occasionally ‘al-Sijzī’ (cf. Abū ʿAwāna, 1/191), which usually comes after his kunya, indicates that he came from Sīstān. The author of Tārīkh-i Sīstān (p. 19) refers to him as one of the outstanding scholars of the region, and there is no evidence for the a…

Abū al-Dunyā

(2,384 words)

Author(s): Pakatchi, Ahmad | Zand, Roxane
Abū al-Dunyā was a man from the Maghrib, about whose alleged longevity stories have circulated since the 4th/10th century. Some writers, such as Abū Bakr al-Mufīd al-Jarjarāʾī, recorded his name and nisba as Abū ʿAmr ʿUthmān b. al-Khaṭṭāb b. ʿAbd Allāh b. al-ʿAwwām al-Balawī (see al-Ḥākim, 10; al-Khaṭīb, 11/297; al-Juwaynī, 1/198), but in the reports of Ibn Akhī Ṭāhir al-ʿAlawī and Abū Saʿīd b. ʿAbd al-Wahhāb al-Rāzī he is referred to as ʿAlī b. ʿUthmān b. al-Khaṭṭāb b. Murra b. Muʾayyad (Ibn Bābawayh, 2/538–544; cf. al-Khaṭīb, 11/299; Ibn Rushayd, 3/67–70). In some of the stories ab…

Alfāẓ

(4,692 words)

Author(s): Pakatchi, Ahmad | Qasemi, Jawad
Alfāẓ (sing. lafẓ, lit. ‘utterances’), is a term for an integral part of the principles of jurisprudence ( uṣūl al-fiqh), which concerns questions of language as an introduction to deducing legal rules from the proofs ( adilla, sing. dalīl) provided by the Qurʾān and sunna. The chapter on alfāẓ is always placed at the beginning of works on uṣūl al-fiqh, and includes a discussion of how language is connected to the principles of jurisprudence and the part it plays in juristic definitions. It was generally viewed as less important than adilla, and therefore only included as a kind of p…

Al-Awzāʿī

(4,391 words)

Author(s): Pakatchi, Ahmad | Umar, Suheyl
Al-Awzāʿī, Abū ʿAmr ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAmr (88–2 Ṣafar 157/706–22 December 774), a Syrian jurist, muḥaddith and founder of a school of jurisprudence which had followers in Syria and al-Andalus until the 4th/10th century. Some sources say that his family were either Yemenis captured during the Muslim wars of conquest ( al-futūḥāt; al-Masʿūdī, 3/304) or from Sindh (al-Dhahabī, Siyar, 7/109); however the preferred opinion is that he belonged to the Sībān clan of the Ḥimyar tribe. His nisba, al-Awzāʿī, stems from his residence in al-Awzāʿ, a suburb of Damascus (see al-Bukhār…

ʿAbd Shams

(837 words)

Author(s): Pakatchi, Ahmad | Gholami, Rahim
ʿAbd Shams, was the son of ʿAbd Manāf b. Quṣayy (q.v.), an ancestor of the Quraysh, father of Umayya, from whom the dynasty of the Umayyads were descended. He was named after ‘Shams’, which was ¶ apparently one of the deities worshipped by the Quraysh (see Abū ʿUbayd al-Bakrī, 3/808–809). His father, ʿAbd Manāf, was the father of Hāshim, head of the clan of the Hāshimids, and great-grandfather of the Prophet Muḥammad. Based on a report frequently repeated in the sources, ʿAbd Shams and Hāshim were twins, whose foreheads were connected at birth. They could not be sep…

al-Bāṭirqānī

(1,348 words)

Author(s): Pakatchi, Ahmad | Khaleeli, Alexander
al-Bāṭirqānī, Abū Bakr b. Faḍl b. Muḥammad (372–460/982–1068), was a Qurʾān reader ( qāriʾ ) and traditionist ( muḥaddith) from Iṣfahān. His nisba is from Bāṭirqān, a district near Iṣfahān’s Ḥasanābād gate, which is now within the city limits. The first unambiguous report regarding his education goes back to the year 387/997, when he would have been fifteen years old; it states that he studied Qurʾān recitation in Iṣfahān under the talented reciter Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Azīz al-Kisāʾī (see al-Dhahabī, Maʿrifa, 1/342; Ibn al-Jazarī, 1/96, cf. 2/173). He also completed his edu…

ʿAlī b. Abī Ḥamza al-Baṭāʾinī

(1,961 words)

Author(s): Pakatchi, Ahmad | Negahban, Farzin
ʿAlī b. Abī Ḥamza al-Baṭāʾinī, Abū al-Ḥasan (d. ca. 202/818), was one of the founders of the Wāqifa school and a distinguished narrator of Imāmī ḥadīths. He was a client ( mawlā) of the ‘Helpers’ (al-Anṣār) and lived in Kūfa (al-Najāshī, 249; al-Ṭūsī, al-Rijāl, 245, 339). His father Abū Ḥamza Sālim is held to have been a companion of Jaʿfar al-Ṣādiq (al-Ṭūsī, al-Rijāl, 218). Al-Baṭāʾinī also studied for a while under Jaʿfar al-Ṣādiq (d. 148/765), is regarded as one of his companions (al-Barqī, ‘al-Rijāl’, 25; al-Najāshī, 249; al-Ṭūsī, al-Rijāl, 245), and narrated a number of ḥadīths from …

Abū al-Muʾthir

(1,996 words)

Author(s): Pakatchi, Ahmad | Gholami, Rahim
Abū al-Muʾthir, al-Ṣalt b. Khamīs al-Bahlawī al-ʿUmānī, was an Ibāḍī faqīh (jurist) in Oman during the 3rd/9th century. His Bahlawī nisba (designation of origin) comes from Bahlāʾ, a place near Nizwā. There is little information about his childhood and youth. For a while he studied under Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Maḥbūb b. Raḥīl (d. 260/874) in Ṣuḥār, and was also taught by some other shaykhs of the time such as Abū Ziyād Waḍḍāḥ b. ʿUqba (see Ibn Jaʿfar, 1/229, 327; Abū Saʿīd al-Kadumī, al-Jāmiʿ, 1/17–18, 221; al-Kindī, Muḥammad, 4/189, 7/137; cf. Abū al-Muʾthir, ‘al-Aḥdāth’, …

Abū al-Faḍl al-Tamīmī

(1,503 words)

Author(s): Pakatchi, Ahmad | Rezaee, Maryam
Abū al-Faḍl al-Tamīmī, ʿAbd al-Wāḥid b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. al-Ḥārith b. Asad (341–410/952–1020), a Ḥanbalī scholar. He was born into a learned family in Baghdad: his grandfather, al-Ḥārith, had been a traditionist, and his father was one of the leading Ḥanbalīs in Baghdad (see al-Khaṭīb, 10/461; for further details regarding his genealogy, see al-Maqqarī, 3/121). In Baghdad, he learnt the Islamic sciences from his father and from scholars of different tendencies, encompassing both extremist Ḥanbalīs on the one hand and Shiʿi scholars on the other. He …
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