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Ismāʿīl

(1,440 words)

Author(s): Paret, Rudi
, the biblical Ishmael, is already mentioned in four places in the Ḳurʾān which date from before the Hid̲j̲ra, in a list of holy men of antiquity: in Sūra XIX, 54 f. it is said of him: “He was one who spoke the promise truly, and he was a messenger and a prophet. He enjoined upon his people the prayer and the almsgiving, and was in his Lord’s eyes approved”; in Sūra XXXVIII, 48 he is mentioned together with Elisha (al-Yasaʿ) and D̲h̲u ’l-Kifl as “one of the good”; in Sūra XXI, 85 f. together wit…

Ismāʿīl

(1,432 words)

Author(s): Paret, Rudi
, l’Ismaël de la Bible, est déjà mentionné en quatre passages du Ḳurʾān antérieurs à l’hégire, parmi d’autres saints personnages de l’antiquité: dans la sourate XIX, 54 sq., il est dit de lui: «Il fut sincère en sa promesse et fut apôtr…

al-Aʿrāf

(474 words)

Author(s): Paret, Rudi | updated by, ¨ | Cook, David B.
al-Aʿrāf (pl. of ʿurf, “elevated place”, “crest”), appears in an eschatological judgement scene in Qurʾān 7:46, where a dividing wall is spoken of, which separates the dwellers of Paradise from the dwellers of Hell, and men “who are on the al-aʿrāf and recognise each by his marks” (Q 7:48, “those of the al-aʿrāf”). The interpretation of this passage is disputed. Richard Bell makes a doubtful conjecture that the word is al-iʿrāf and translates: “(Presiding) over the recognition are men, who recognise… .” According to Tor Andrae the “men on the elevated places” are probably the dwellers in the highest degrees of Paradise, “who are able to look down both on Hell and on Paradise.” Perhaps the reference is in particular to the mess…
Date: 2020-12-18

Ḳayṣar

(1,528 words)

Author(s): Fischer, A. | Wensinck, A.J. | Schaade, A. | Paret, Rudi. | S̲h̲ahîd, Irfān
, désignation usuelle, en arabe, de l’empereur de Rome et de Byzance. Ce terme, qui représente le latin Caesar (al-Masʿūdī, Murūd̲j̲, II, 296 = § 717, en indique l’étymologie) et le grec καῖσαρ, est entré en arabe par l’intermédiaire de l’araméen (voir Fraenkel, Die aramäischen Fremdwörter im arabischen, Leyde 1886, 278 sq.); l’emprunt a dû se produire à une date très ancienne, car ce mot apparaît presque toujours, par la suite, sous la forme Ḳēṣar en syriaque (voir Payne Smith, Thesaurus syriacus, s.v.). I. — Avant l’Islam. Plusieurs siècles avant l’Islam, les Arabes entretenaien…