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(1,683 words)

Author(s): Pedersen, Johs.
, vow, was taken over into Islām from the pre-Muḥammadan Arabs and underwent modification by the new religion. The idea of dedication is associated with the root n-d̲h̲-r which is also found in South Arabic, Hebrew and Aramaic and to some extent in Assyrian. An animal could ¶ be the object of dedication among the Arabs. For example, they dedicated by nad̲h̲r certain of their sheep etc., for the ʿatīra feast in Rad̲j̲ab ( Lisān al-ʿArab and Ḏj̲awharī, s.v.); the dedication which was expressed in solemn formulae signified that the animals were removed from the mundane sp…


(100 words)

Author(s): Pedersen, Johs.
, the most usual Muslim term for oath, from the meaning “the right hand”, according to al-Ḏj̲awharī, Ṣiḥāḥ, s. v., because those swearing take one another’s right hands but rather because participants in an oath in general use the right hand in the ceremony; cf. Lisān al-ʿArab, xvii. 356, 7. On the oath s. ḥilf and ḳasam. On particular expressions like Yamīn al-Ḥint̲h̲, Yamīn al-Ṣabr, Yamīn al-Ḳaḍāʾ etc. s. Corpus Iuris di Zaid Ibn ʿAlī, ed. Griffini, Indices; Il Muḫtaṣar o Sommario del Diritto Malechita di Ḫalīl Ibn Isḥāq, transl. Guidi and Santillana, i. p. XL. (Johs. Pedersen)


(3,523 words)

Author(s): Pedersen, Johs.
(a.) (verb aḳsama), is with yamīn the general term for oath. As ḳasama means “to divide”, we seem to have here the usual transition between the meanings “to cut” and “to decide” so that ḳasam would be the deciding, strong word (cf. ), while ḥilf (verb ḥalafa), which also means swearing, would be used in special circumstances (see the art. ḥilf). The oath plays a great part in the social life of the Arabs and is mentioned by Zuhair ( Dīwān, i. 40) as the principal means of ascertaining the truth, along with interrogation by a person in authority and absolute clearness. The o…


(1,888 words)

Author(s): Pedersen, Johs.
(a.), plur. k̲h̲uṭabāʾ, was, among the ancient Arabs, the name for the spokesman of the tribe. The k̲h̲aṭīb is therefore often mentioned along with the s̲h̲āʿir, the poet (Ibn His̲h̲ām, Sīra, ed. Wüstenfeld, p. 934, 1 from below, 938, 5 from below; Yāḳūt, ed. Wüstenfeld, iv. 484, 11 sq.), and, like the kāhin and the saiyid, was one of the leaders of the tribe. The character and significance of his office is clearly explained by Ḏj̲āḥiẓ, Kitāb al-Bayān wa ’l-Tabyīn, Cairo 1332, vols. 1—3. The distinction between k̲h̲aṭīb and s̲h̲āʿir is not ¶ absolutely definite but practically is that the s̲h̲…


(1,920 words)

Author(s): Pedersen, Johs.
(a.), pl. k̲h̲uṭabāʾ, désigne chez les anciens Arabes le porte-parole de la tribu. C’est pourquoi le k̲h̲aṭīb est souvent mentionné à côté du s̲h̲āʿir, poète (Ibn His̲h̲ām, Sīra, éd. Wüstenfeld, 934, 938; Yāḳūt, Buldān, IV, 484), et fait partie comme le kāhin et le sayyid des chefs de la tribu. Son caractère et son importance sont surtout mis en lumière par al-Ḏj̲āḥiz, Kitāb al-Bayān wa-l-tabyīn, éd. Caire 1332, I. La différence entre k̲h̲aṭīb et s̲h̲āʿir n’est pas très bien fixée, mais elle repose sans doute pour l’essentiel sur le fait que le s̲h̲āʿir emploie la forme poétique alors que le k…


(86,325 words)

Author(s): Pedersen, Johs. | Kern, R. A. | Diez, Ernst
(a.), Mosque. I. (Johs. Pedersen) A.Origin. B.Foundation of mosques after Muḥammad’s death. C.The mosque as a religious centre. D. The building and its equipment. E.The mosque as a state institution. F.The mosque as a school. G. Administration. H. The staff. II. (R. A. Kern) The mosquë in the Dutch Indies. III. (E. Diez) Architecture. A. Origin of the Mosque. The word is found in Aramaic, the earliest occurrence being in the Jewish Elephantine Papyri (ed. Sachau, pl. 32, ed. Ungnad, N°. 33; Cowley, Aramaic Papyri of the fifth Cent. B. C, N°. 44), also frequently in Nabataean ( Corp. Inscr. S…