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al-Marwazī

(317 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abū Ṭālib ʿAzīz al-Dīn Ismāʿīl b. al-Ḥusayn b. Muḥammad ... b. ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib, a Ḥusaynī who seems to have devoted himself to the study of genealogies, although he is also credited with knowledge of astronomy and, like so many others, he was a composer of verse. His ancestors had left Medina and settled first in Bag̲h̲dād, then in Ḳum(m) and finally in Marw, where he was born on 22 D̲j̲umādā 572/26 December 1176. He embarked on traditional studies in his nat…

Ḏj̲ins

(2,754 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
is the Arabic word in use at the present time to denote “sex”, the adjective d̲j̲insī corresponding to “sexual” and the abstract d̲j̲insiyya to “sexuality” as well as “nationality”. The juridical aspect of sexual relations has already been examined in the article bāh , and is to be the subject of further articles, nikāḥ and zinā ; the present review will be limited to general considerations on the sexual life of the Muslims and the place that it occupies in literature. Pre-Islamic poetry, in so far as it is authentic, indicates that a certain laxity of behaviour was prevalen…

al-Mand̲j̲ūr

(441 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. ʿAlī al-Miknāsī al-Fāsī , a learned Moroccan scholar and teacher, from a family originally from Meknès, born in Fās 926/1520 and died there 16 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda/18 October 1587. Endowed with vast learning and a great power of verbal expressiveness, he spent his life teaching, with the methods in use at the time, various Islamic topics, in particular, theology and law, and was considered one of the greatest masters of his age at the Karawiyyīn [ q.v.]. Between 987 and 993/1579-85, he stayed frequently for periods in Marrakesh, where his most eminent disc…

al-Buḥturī

(1,676 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, abū ʿubāda al-walīd b. ʿubayd ( allāh ), Arab poet and anthologist of 3rd/9th century (206-284/821-897), born at Manbid̲j̲ (some state his birthplace to be the neighbouring village of Ḥurdufna), into a family belonging to the Buḥtur, a branch of the Ṭayyiʾ; not only did he never completely sever connexions with his native town, where the fortune amassed during his long career as court poet allowed him to acquire property, but he took advantage of his tribal origin to make useful connexions for himself. After having dedicated his first poetic efforts (223-6/837-40) to the prais…

Muḥammad b. Abī ʿUyayna

(447 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
( = Abu ’l-Minhāl) ¶ b. al-Muhallab b. Abī Ṣufra , Abū Ḥarb al-Muhallabī, ʿAbbāsid official who was governor of Rayy under the caliphate of al-Manṣūr (136-58/754-75); it is also known that the latter imprisoned him and imposed a fine on him ( Ag̲h̲ānī , ed. Beirut, xx, 23). This obscure individual merits attention only on account of the confusion created in the minds of authors and editors or commentators, on the one hand by the name (or surname, but not kunya ) of Abū ʿUyayna born by two descendants of al-Muhallab [ q.v.], sc. his son, who was the father of this Muḥammad, and his great…

Abu ’l-Ḥasan al-Aḥmar

(375 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, the usual name of a philologist of Baṣra called ʿAlī b. al-Ḥasan/al-Mubārak, who was taught by al-Kisāʾī [ q.v.], whose eager pupil he was; after his master, he became tutor to the future caliphs al-Amīn and al-Maʾmūn. The biographical sources record that al-Aḥmar was originally a member of al-Ras̲h̲īd’s guard, so that, being very attracted to the study of philology, he was unable to attend al-Kisāʾī’s teaching sessions except when he was not on duty in the palace. When the master came to give lessons to the you…

al-Muhallabī

(387 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abu ’l-Ḥusayn al-Ḥasan b. Ahmad , Arab geographer, about whom it is only known that he died in 380/990 after having dedicated to the Fāṭimid caliph al-ʿAzīz bi’llāh (365-86/975-96) [ q.v.] a work which came within the category of those called al-Masālik wa ’l-mamālik [ q.v.] and which actually bore this title but which is generally cited under that of al-ʿAzīzī . Although this work has not yet been rediscovered, it was already possible to get an idea of its contents thanks to several later authors who utilised it and took from it items of information, usu…

Ismāʿīl b. Yasār

(398 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
al-Nisāʾī , Medinan poet, who died at a very advanced age some years before the end of the Umayyad dynasty (132/750). The descendant of an Ād̲h̲arbayd̲j̲ānī prisoner, he was a mawlā of the Taym b. Murra of Ḳurays̲h̲ and it is said that he owed his nisba to the fact that his father prepared meals—or sold carpets—for weddings, but this interpretation should be treated with caution. At Medina, where he lived, he had become a supporter of the Zubayrids, but his friendly relations with ʿUrwa b. al-Zubayr [ q.v.] (in whose company he went to the court of ʿAbd al-Malik b. Marwān after the…

al-Namir (Namr) b. Tawlab al-ʿUklī

(621 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abū Rabīʿa, a muk̲h̲aḍram [ q.v.] Arabie poet, who probably died before 23/644 at an extremely advanced age (al-Sid̲j̲istānī, Muʿammarīn , 70, makes him live 200 years, and cites six verses in which he speaks of his great age; other authors refer equally to his senility). The generosity of which he seems to have given proof on various occasions makes one think that he was rich and powerful within his tribe, which he represented in heading a delegation to the Prophet at Medina. The oldest sources (Ibn Sallām, Ṭabaḳāt , 137, in the first place) reproduce a lette…

Laḥn al-ʿĀmma

(5,487 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, “errors of language made by the common people”, is an expression which characterises a branch of lexicography designed to correct deviations by reference to the contemporary linguistic norm, as determined by the purists. The treatises which could be classed under this heading, correspond, broadly speaking, to our “do not say... but say...”, the incorrect form generally being introduced by “you say” or “they say = one says” ( taḳūl , yaḳūlūn ) and the correct form by wa ’l-ṣawāb ... “whereas the norm is...”; they are most often intitled Kitāb Laḥn al-ʿāmma or Kitāb mā talḥan/yalḥan fīhi…

Ḥilm

(1,860 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
(a.), a complex and delicate notion which includes a certain number of qualities of character or moral attitudes, ranging from serene justice and moderation to forbearance and leniency, with self-mastery and dignity of bearing standing between these extremes. The term, which is sometimes linked with ʿilm , more however from stylistic considerations and a taste for paronomasia than from any conceptual association, is basically contrasted with d̲j̲ahl [see d̲j̲āhiliyya ] and safah or safāha ; a derivative from the latter root appears in the expression saffahal-aḥlām

Ibn al-Ad̲j̲dābī

(528 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abū Isḥāḳ Ibrāhīm b. Ismāʿīl al-Ṭarābulusī , Arab philologist from a family originally stemming from Ad̲j̲dābiya (Libya); he himself lived at Tripoli, where he died at an uncertain date, probably in the first half of the 7th/13th century. Hardly anything further is known about his life, and the biographers limit themselves to emphasising the breadth of his knowledge and his contribution to the technical literature of scholars of his time. They attribute to him some eight works, whose titles show that he was interested in lexicography, metrics, the anwāʾ [ q.v.] and genealogies (he i…

Ḥamza b. Bīḍ

(453 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
al-Ḥanafī al-Kūfī (the spelling Bīḍ is attested by a verse where this name rhymes with tanbīḍ al-D̲j̲āḥiẓ, Bayān , ed. Hārūn, iv, 47), is one of those Arab poets, full of wit and verve, ¶ whom the great men of the day did not take seriously but loaded with riches to gain their eulogies and escape their sarcasms, for they were quick to get the laugh on their side and, free of all scruples, did not hesitate to use blackmail. Ḥamza b. Bīḍ, who is treated by his biographers with indulgence and sympathy, is said to have succeeded in extracting from the great men whose company he frequented a million dirhams

Muṣʿab

(722 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Muṣʿab b. T̲h̲ābit b. ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Zubayr b. al-ʿAwwām al-zubayrī , Abū ʿAbd Allāh, genealogist who owes his fame to two works, the Kitāb al-Nasab al-kabīr , considered to be lost, and the Kitāb Nasab Ḳurays̲h̲ , edited by E. Lévi-Provençal, Cairo 1953. This Ḳurays̲h̲ite was born in Medina, probably in 156/773, a descendant of the Companion al-Zubayr b. al-ʿAwwām [ q.v.]. He followed the teaching of various masters, including Mālik b. Anas [ q.v.], before settling at Bag̲h̲dād where he died, at the age of 80, on 2 S̲h̲awwāl 236/8 April 851 (the Fihrist

Ibn Wahbūn

(456 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd al-D̲j̲alīl b. Wahbūn , Arab poet of Spain, whose career was passed at the court of the master of Seville, al-Muʿtamid Ibn ʿAbbād [ q.v.]. Born at Murcia, probably about 430-40/1039-49, into a family of humble origin, he went to seek his fortune at Seville, where he was the pupil of the philologist al-Aʿlam al-S̲h̲antamarī [ q.v.] and formed a friendship with the vizier and poet Ibn ʿAmmār [ q.v.] before being admitted to the court, in circumstances which are variously reported. He then became one of the official panegyrists of al-Muʿtamid and mad…

Ḥammād ʿAd̲j̲rad

(1,001 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
(in status constructus), Arab satirical poet whose genealogy has not been exactly established; his kunya , Abū ʿUmar, would justify the following: Ḥammād b. ʿUmar b. Yūnus (rather than b. Yaḥyā or Yūnus b. ʿUmar) b. Kulayb al-Kūfī. Born at the latest at the beginning of the 2nd/8th century, this mawlā of a clan of the ʿĀmīr b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa probably owes his by-name ( ʿad̲j̲rad = completely naked) to the saying of a Bedouin. His biographers agree in declaring that he achieved fame only under the ʿAbbāsids, but they do not fail to point out th…

ʿAdī b. al-Riḳāʿ

(167 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abū Duʾād ʿAdī b. Zayd b. Mālik b. ʿAdī b. al-Riḳāʿ al-ʿĀmilī , Arab poet of Syria, who was, in Damascus, the panegyrist of the Umayyads, especially of al-Walīd b. ʿAbd al-Malik (86-96/705-15), in the presence of whom he fought a poetical contest with Ḏj̲arīr; he was also the butt of attacks by al-Rāʿī. ʿAdī was celebrated for the grace of his nasīb (see especially al-Mubarrad, al-Kāmil , 85, concerning Umm al-Ḳāsim) and for the care with which he composed his poems. His poems were known in Spain at an early date ( BAH, ix, 397). He lived at least into the caliphate of Sulaymān b. ʿAbd…

ʿArīb b. Saʿd al-Kātib al-Ḳurṭubī

(396 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, an Andalusian mawlā who held various official posts (he was in particular ʿāmil of the district of Osuna in 331/943), lived in the entourage of al-Muṣḥafī [ q.v.] and Ibn Abī ʿĀmir [see al-manṣūr] and was the secretary of the Umayyad caliph al-Ḥakam II (350-66/961-76); the date of his death is not known, but is put by Pons Boigues at about 370/980. A man of wide learning, ʿArīb distinguished himself as physician and poet, but is primarily known for his work as a historian. He was in fact the author of a résumé of the Annals of al-Ṭabarī, which he continue…

Ahaggar

(755 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, a Berber word denoting (a) the members (pl. ihaggarən ) of one of the noble tribes constituting the former group of the Northern Tuaregs [ q.v.], and (b) one of these tribes (Kəl Ahaggar or Ihaggarən), inhabiting a region to which it has given the name of Ahaggar (Hoggar). In its widest sense, the Ahaggar is the group of territories under the dominion of the Kəl Ahaggar. It covers an area of about 200,000 sq. miles between lat. 21°-25° N and long. 3°-6° E. Bounded by mountain massifs (the Ahanəf to the E., the Tassili of the Ajjər to the N.-E., the Immidir to the N., the Adrar of the Ifog̲h̲as [ q.v.] an…

Nābita

(544 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, (a.), a term of Classical Arabic which means in particular “rising generation”, but one which today has acquired the pejorative sense of “bad lot, rogue” which the plural nawābit and the expression nābitat s̲h̲arr previously possessed. These meanings were noted by the mediaeval lexicographers, but one finds in Ibn al-Nadīm a section ( Fihrist , ed. Cairo, 255-7, ed. Tad̲j̲addud, 229-31) devoted to the mutakallimū ’l-mud̲j̲bira [see d̲j̲abriyya ] and to the nābitat al-ḥas̲h̲wiyya , amongst whom the main exponent was allegedly Ibn Kullāb [ q.v. in Suppl.], whilst al-Zamak̲h̲s̲h̲a…
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