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 Akhbār mulūk al-Andalus

(1,180 words)

Author(s): Penelas, Mayte
Reports on the kings of al-Andalus Aḥmad al-Rāzī Date: First half of the 10th century; before 955 Original Language: Arabic Description This history is not preserved in its original form, its contents being known through quotations in later works and translations into other languages. Devoted exclusively to the Iberian Peninsula, it was divided into three parts: geographical description, pre-Islamic history, and history from the arrival of the Arabs to the author’s own time. It included a detailed account of the Ara…


(498 words)

Author(s): Penelas, Mayte
Abū l-῾Abbās Aḥmad ibn ῾Umar ibn Anas al-῾Udhrī ibn al-Dalā’ī Date of Birth: 4 September 1003 Place of Birth: Almería Date of Death: December 1085 Place of Death: Almería Biography Born in Almería on 4 September, 1003, al-ʿUdhrī derived his family name from the south Arabian tribe of ῾Udhra, a part of which settled in the village of Dalías (Dalāya) near Almería after the Arab conquest. At the age of 13 he travelled to Mecca, where he stayed almost ten years attending lessons in Hadith and Islamic law given by both local scholars and those who went there on pil…

Dhikr bilād al-Andalus

(22 words)

Author(s): Penelas, Mayte
Biography Primary Sources of Information Secondary Sources of Information Works on Christian-Muslim Relations Dhikr bilād al-Andalus Mayte Penelas

 Al-ikmāl wa-l-itmām fī ṣilat al-Iʿlām bi-maḥāsin al-aʿlām min ahl Mālaqa al-kirām

(649 words)

Author(s): Penelas, Mayte
Maṭlaʿ al-anwār wa-nuzhat al-baṣāʾir wa-l-abṣār fī mā iḥtawat ʿalayhi Mālaqa min al-aʿlām wa-l-ruʾasāʾ wa-l-akhyār wa-taqyīd mā lahum min al-manāqib wa-l-āthār‘Completion and conclusion, on the continuation of Information about the virtues of the eminent people of Malaga’‘Uplifting of lights and delectation of discernments and insights, on the eminent people, leaders and outstanding personalities of Malaga, including their virtues and deeds’ Ibn ʿAskar Date: 1239, unfinished Original Language: Arabic Description As is indicated by one of its titles, Ibn ʿAskar’s…


(957 words)

Author(s): Penelas, Mayte
Abū ʿAmr ʿUthmān b. Saʿīd b. ʿUthmān b. Saʿīd b. ʿUmar al-Umawī b. al-Ṣayrafī al-Dānī (b. 371/981–2, d. 444/1053) was an outstanding Andalusī figure in Qurʾān readings and the founder of an influential school in this discipline. He was known, in his time, as Ibn al-Ṣayrafī (perhaps because his father or grandfather was a money changer) and later as al-Dānī, for having settled in Denia, although he was born in Córdoba in 371/981–2. He travelled to the East in Muḥarram 397/1006, spending three years in al-Qayrawān, Cairo, and Mecca b…
Date: 2020-09-16

Aḥmad al-Rāzī

(441 words)

Author(s): Penelas, Mayte
Abū Bakr Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Rāzī al-Kinānī Date of Birth: April 888 Place of Birth: Cordova Date of Death: 1 November 955 Place of Death: Cordova Biography Aḥmad al-Rāzī was the son of a merchant from al-Rayy (hence his patronymic al-Rāzī), whose professional dealings led him to North Africa and al-Andalus. His family were in Cordova when Aḥmad was born, in April 888. When Aḥmad's father died, the family remained in al-Andalus, and Aḥmad continued to live in Cordova throughout his life. Aḥmad al-Rāzī was known as a great memorizer and transmitter of historical repor…

Ibn ʿAskar

(518 words)

Author(s): Penelas, Mayte
Abū ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad ibn ʿAlī (ibn ʿUbayd Allāh) ibn Khaḍir ibn Hārūn al-Ghassānī Date of Birth: About 1188 Place of Birth: Malaga Date of Death: 12 January 1239 Place of Death: Malaga Biography Abū ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad ibn ʿAlī, known as Ibn ʿAskar, was a noted jurist of Malaga. Among his teachers were his uncle Abū l-Ḥasan ʿAlī ibn Muḥammad, Abū l-Ḥajjāj Yūsuf ibn Muḥammad ibn al-Shaykh, the author of Kitāb alif bāʾ, and Abū ʿAlī ῾Umar ibn ʿAbd al-Majīd al-Rundī. During the rule of Muḥammad ibn Hūd (1230-38), Ibn ʿAskar served as deputy to the judge Abū ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad…

The Conquest of Iberia

(50 words)

Author(s): Penelas, Mayte
Fatḥ al-Andalus Date of Birth: Unknown; probably mid-11th century Place of Birth: Unknown Date of Death: Unknown; probably early 12th century Place of Death: Unknown Biography - Primary Sources of Information - Secondary Sources of Information - Works on Christian-Muslim Relations Fatḥ al-Andalus Mayte Penelas

 Dhikr bilād al-Andalus

(1,007 words)

Author(s): Penelas, Mayte
Tārīkh al-Andalus‘Description of the country of al-Andalus’‘History of al-Andalus’ Dhikr bilād al-Andalus Date: Mid-14th - late 15th century Original Language: Arabic Description Dhikr bilād al-Andalus is divided into two distinct parts, on the geography of the Iberian Peninsula and on the history of al-Andalus. The historical section, with which this entry deals, occupies 43 folios of the sole complete known manuscript, two other copies being incomplete. The original title of the work is unknown. The name by which it is known was given on account of the begin…

 Fatḥ al-Andalus

(777 words)

Author(s): Penelas, Mayte
The conquest of Iberia The Conquest of Iberia Date: 1102-10 Original Language: Arabic Description Fatḥ al-Andalus is more than a history of the Arab conquest of the Iberian Peninsula, because it extends to the arrival of the Almoravids in the 12th century. However, two quite different parts are to be distinguished: its account of the conquest, the governors of the Umayyads of Damascus, and the coming and rule of the Umayyad emir ʿAbd al-Raḥmān I is very detailed, whereas from the second Umayyad ruler, Hishām I, to the taifa kings it is scant, defective, and often wrong, omitting any mention of important rulers such as ʿAbdallāh, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān III ‘al-Nāṣir’, and al-Ḥakam II ‘al-Mustanṣir’. The history is by an unknown Andalusī or North African author, certainly writing after 1102, because the last event recor…

 Tarṣī῾ al-akhbār wa-tanwī῾ al-āthār wa-l-bustān fī gharā’ib al-buldān wa-l-masālik ilā jamī῾ al-mamālik

(1,068 words)

Author(s): Penelas, Mayte
Niẓām al-marjān fī l-masālik wa-l-mamālikKitāb al-masālik wa-l-mamālik al-sharqiyya wa-kitāb al-masālik wa-l-mamālik al-gharbiyyaThe adornment of reports and classification of monuments and gardens on the wonders of lands and the routes to all kingdoms Al-῾Udhrī Date: Between 1066 and 1085 Original Language: Arabic…