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(162 words)

Author(s): Plessner, M.
, the seventh month in the Syrian calendar. Its name is taken from the first month of the Jewish religious (seventh of the civil) year with the period of which it roughly coincides. It corresponds to April of the Roman year and like it has 30 days. On the 10th and 23rd Nīsān, according to al-Bīrūnī, the two first stations of the moon rise (the numbering of these two as first and second shows that the numbering was established by scholars for whom Nīsān was the first month) and the 15th and 16th set. In 1300 of the Seleucid era (989 a. d.), according to al-Bīrūnī, the stars of the 28th and 1st stations of …


(149 words)

Author(s): Plessner, M.
, novice, the term applied during his period of preparation to one who wishes to enter a derwish order [ṭarīḳa; q. v.; cf. also derwīs̲h̲] or a guild [ṣinf; q. v.]. The task of the murīd and his obligations to his master ( s̲h̲aik̲h̲, pīr) and to his ideal and their mystic and erotic foundations have been often and fully discussed, so that it is here sufficient to give a reference to the most important literature of modern times, which will guide one to the sources themselves. In the wider application of the word murīd has become a term for mystic in general. (M. Plessner) Bibliography the articles …


(154 words)

Author(s): Plessner, M.
, the eighth month of the Syriac calendar. There is no uniform opinion regarding its vocalization. Al-Bīrūnī (see Bibl.) says that the name was originally written without an alif as the third letter. The initial vowel also varies between a and i and the doubling of the also is not regular. The usual modern form is aiyār. It corresponds to May of the Roman year and like it has 31 days. On the 6th and 19th of this month, according to al-Bīrūnī, the third and fourth lunar stations rise and the 17th and 18th set. In the year 1300 of the Seleucid era (989 a. d.) according to al-Bīrūnī on the 5th, 18th and 31st…

Muḳātil b. Sulaimān

(468 words)

Author(s): Plessner, M.
b. Bas̲h̲īr al-Azdī al-Ḵh̲urāsānϊ al-Balk̲h̲ī, Abu ’l-Ḥasan, traditionist and commentator on the Ḳurʾān, was born in Balk̲h̲ and lived in Marw, Bag̲h̲dād and Baṣra, where he died in 150 (767); there is also a reference to a stay in Bairūt. Of his life we know almost nothing apart from a few details for his judgment as a traditionist. The name of his wife Umm Abī ʿIṣma Nūḥ b. Abī Maryam has been preserved. According to Ibn Duraid, he was one of the mawālī of the Banū Asad. He is sometimes quoted as Muḳātil b. Ḏj̲awāl dūz or Dawāl dūz. Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar, Lisān al-Mīzān, expressly states in contradictio…


(255 words)

Author(s): Plessner, M.
(a.), the name of the seventh month in the Muslim calendar. In the Ḏj̲āhilīya it introduced the summer half year until, as a result of the abolition of the intercalated months, the months ceased to fall regularly at the same season of the year [see al-muḥarram and nasīʾ]. The month was a sacred one; in it the ʿumra [q. v.], the essentially Meccan part of the pre-Muḥammadan ceremonies of pilgrimage, took place. The peace of Allāh therefore prevailed in it; the forbidden war which was fought in Rad̲j̲ab between Ḳurais̲h̲ and Hawāzin and in which the young Muḥammad took part is called Fid̲j̲ār (per…


(1,387 words)

Author(s): Plessner, M.
, Abū Zakarīyāʾ Yaḥyā b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan (Yāḳūt adds: b. Muḥammad b. Mūsā) b. Bisṭām al-S̲h̲aibānī al-Ḵh̲aṭīb, a celebrated Arab philologist born in 421 (1030). Among his teachers the best known was the poet Abu ’l-ʿAlāʾ al-Maʿarrī [q. v.]. A copy of the Kitāb al-Tahd̲h̲īb fī ’l-Lug̲h̲a of Abū Manṣūr al-Azharī (Brockelmann, G. A. L., i. 129; cf. however Bergsträsser, Z. S., ii. 189, N°. 24) came into Tibrīzī’s hands and he required a teacher to expound it for him. He was recommended to the poet. He put the work which was in several volumes in a …


(470 words)

Author(s): Plessner, M.
, Burhān al-Dīn, an Arab philosopher. His ism is not known and his period can only be approximately stated. Ahlwardt in the Berlin Catalogue under N°. 111 says that Maḥmūd b. Sulaimān al-Kaffawī (d. 990 = 1562) in his Aʿlām al-Ak̲h̲yār min Fuḳahāʾ Mad̲h̲hab al-Nuʿmān al-Muk̲h̲tār puts our author in the twelfth class of the Ḥanafīs and from this calculates that he flourished about 620 (1223). In agreement with this is the fact that Eduard van Dyck, Iktifāʾ al-Ḳanūʿ bi-mā huwa maṭbūʿ, Cairo 1896, p. 190, describes our philosopher, in agreement with Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa, N°. 31…


(142 words)

Author(s): Plessner, M.
, (p.) the fifth month of the Persian solar year running from July 19 to Aug. 18 ( Murdād̲h̲ māh). Murdād̲h̲ is also the name of the seventh day of each month ( Murdād̲h̲ rūz); it is the last of the series of the days which are called after the Amesha Spentas. Murdād̲h̲ (Pehlevi amūrdāt̲h̲ “immortality”) forms with Ḵh̲urdād̲h̲ [q.v.] (Pehlevi k̲h̲ūrdāt̲h̲ perfection) an indivisible pair and the days which bear these names come together. They denote a pair of archangels, of whom Murdād̲h̲ has charge of the gifts of the earth on which the life of man depend…


(726 words)

Author(s): Plessner, M.
(a.), means in the old language possession, property, referring among the Beduins particularly to camels, but also to estates and money, in any case to concrete things. The word is formed from and li and means properly anything that belongs to any one. As a noun it is of course treated as a med. w stem from which a ¶ verb is then formed. In the meaning “money” the word is used in the expression māl ṣāmit “dumb property” in contrast to māl nāṭiḳ “speaking property”, applied to slaves and cattle. There is a full definition of the conception in the introduction to the Is̲h̲āra ilā Maḥāsin al-Tid̲j̲…


(781 words)

Author(s): Plessner, M.
(a.), market, frequent in street and place-names. The word in this sense is, according to Fraenkel, Die aram. Fremdwörter im Arab., Leiden 1886, p. 187, borrowed from the Aramaic. Fraenkel was especially induced to come to this opinion by the consideration that “markets in this sense must have been unknown to the earliest Arabs”. This may be true for the early period during which the word may be presumed to have been borrowed from the Aramaic; but it is certain that regular markets were already in existence among the Arabs before Islām; on this the most recent reference is H. Lammens, La Mecque…


(2,361 words)

Author(s): Plessner, M.
(a.) is a word of many meanings. In St. John’s Gospel xv. 26, the coming of the paraclete is announced. In the preceding verse a passage from the Psalms referring to the haters is quoted and ἐν τῷ νόμῷ αὐτῶν given as source. The verses in the Gospel from 23 on were already known to Ibn Isḥāḳ in an Arabic version which came from a Syriac one as the reproduction of “paraclete” by al-manaḥmānā shows. In the same source the word νόμοΣ was left untranslated: for we find it in Ibn His̲h̲ām in the form nāmūs. Biographical tradition makes Waraḳa b. Nawfal expressly assert the identification of Mu…

Sufyān al-T̲h̲awrī

(2,565 words)

Author(s): Plessner, M.
Abū ʿAbd Allāh Sufyān b. Saʿīd (according to some Saʿd) b. Masrūḳ al-T̲h̲awrī al-Kūfī, a celebrated theologian, traditionist and ascetic of the second century a. h. His nisba al-T̲h̲awrī is ¶ derived, according to the view generally held by the biographers, from T̲h̲awr b. ʿAbd Manāt…. b. al-Yās b. Muḍar, who was among his ancestors (cf. Wüstenfeld, Register zu den genealog. Tabellen d. arab. Stämme u. Familien, 1853, p. 452; Ibn Duraid, Ishtiḳāḳ, ed. Wüstenfeld, 1854, p. 113; Samʿānī, Ansāb, G. M. S., xx., fol. 117a). Ibn Ḵh̲allikān, Wafayāt, ed. Wüstenfeld, N°. 265 (transl. by de…


(272 words)

Author(s): Plessner, M.
(a.), royal power, is used in the Ḳurʾān with reference to God and to certain pre-Islāmic personages, who all appear in the Old Testament, and in the former case is synonymous with malakūt; the latter word however occurs only four times in the Ḳurʾān and always with a dependent genitive ( kull s̲h̲aiʿ or al-samawāt wa ’l-arḍ) while mulk is often used absolutely. To God alone belongs mulk, He has no associate therein; to Him belongs mulk over heaven and earth as well as over the judgment. He gives mulk to whom He will; the unbelievers have no share in it. S̲h̲aiṭān promised Ādam imperishable mulk an…


(375 words)

Author(s): Plessner, M.
, the name of the first two months of the Syrian calendar. It is found as early as the Falmyrene inscriptions and there means only one month, namely the first (in the Jewish calendar, the seventh) while the next was called Kānūn [q. v.]. In the calendar of the Syriac church however, we find this name applied to two months, the third and fourth Syrian = ninth and tenth Jewish, Kislēw and Ṭēbb̲h̲ēt̲h̲, while the original Kānūn was replaced by a second Tes̲h̲rīn month. As a stage in the development…


(315 words)

Author(s): Plessner, M.
(a.), possession, property. The word is not found in the Ḳurʾān, but is in regular use in legal terminology. The double meaning of the word shows that the usual distinction in our legal language between the conceptions of possession and property are not found in the fiḳh. There is, it is true, a special term for the actual power over a thing, what we call possession in the narrower sense, namely yad, lit. “hand”, but the distinction between a judicial ownership and the actual control is not found in Muslim jurisprudence and there is not a word for property which ta…


(136 words)

Author(s): Plessner, M.
, the fifth month of the Syriac year. Its name is taken from the eleventh Jewish month, S̲h̲ebāṭ, with which it roughly coincides. It begins on Jan. 31 of the Roman calendar and has 28 days with an intercalated day every four years. In S̲h̲ubāṭ the moon stations 10 and 11 set and 24 and 25 rise; the days on which one sets and the one a fortnight later rises are according to al-Bīrūnī the 6th and 16th or 4th and 17th according to al-Ḳazwīnī the 12th and 25th. (M. Plessner) Bibliography al-Bīrūnī, al-Āt̲h̲ār al-bāḳiya, ed. Sachau, 1878, p. 60, 70, 347-350 al-Ḳazwīnī, ʿAd̲j̲āʾib al-Mak̲h̲lūḳāt, ed. W…


(118 words)

Author(s): Pléssner, M.
,the name of the sixth Persian month, which has 30 days like every Persian month. The older form of the name found also in al-Bīrūnī is S̲h̲ahrīvar. As the name is also that of the fourth day of every Persian month, the month and day are distinguished by the addition of māh or rūz. The 4th S̲h̲ahrīr, on which the name of day and month are the same is called S̲h̲ahrīrgān. (M. Pléssner) Bibliography al-Bīrūnī, At̲h̲ār, ed. Sachau, p. 42 sq., 70, 221 al-Ḳazwīnī, ʿAd̲j̲āʾib al-Mak̲h̲lūḳāt, ed. Wüstenfeld, i. 79, 81 (German transl. by Ethé p. 163, 167) on the linguistic history of the name cf. Horn, Neupe…


(909 words)

Author(s): Plessner, M.
(a.), name of the ninth month of the Muḥammadan calendar. The name from the root r-m-ḍ refers to the heat of summer and therefore shows in what season the month fell when the ancient Arabs still endeavoured to equate their year with the solar year by intercalary months [see nasīʾ]. Ramaḍān is the only month of the year to be mentioned in the Ḳurʾān (Sūra, ii. 185; eastern numbering): “The month of Ramaḍān (is that) in which the Ḳurʾān was sent down”, we are told in connection with the establishment of the fast of Ramaḍān. The discussion on the …


(675 words)

Author(s): Plessner, M.
, an Arab author of Tunis. Practically nothing is known of his life. His name is not even handed down in a single form. The manuscripts of his Riḥla (see the works by Rousseau and Bel quoted below) all seem to call him Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh; so he is also called in Ibn al-Ḵh̲aṭīb Ibn Ḳunfūd̲h̲ ( G.A.L., ii. 241), al-Fārisīya fī Mabādi ’l-Dawla al-Ḥafṣīya (in Cherbonneau in J. A., iv., 17, 1851, p. (in transl., p. 64). In his Tuḥfat al-ʿArūs wa-Nuzhal al-Nufūs on the title page we have Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Aḥmad; this is what Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa, N°. 2623 also writes and al-Zarkas̲h̲ī, Taʾrīk̲…


(3,525 words)

Author(s): Plessner, M.
(a.) era, computation, date. The article in vol. iv. received a much needed supplement in the article zamān and is only of value along with it. Here we give supplements to both these articles and shall refer from time to time to the numerous other articles which are essential to the subject. The root of the word is w-r-k̲h̲ common to the Semitic languages, which we find for example in the Hebrew yārēaḥ “moon”, yeraḥ “month”. The meaning of taʾrīk̲h̲ on this analogy would therefore be “fixing of the month”; the meaning has developed on the one hand into “fixing the per…
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