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Ritual

(7,433 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt) | von Lieven, Alexandra (Berlin) | Böck, Barbara (Madrid) | Haas, Volkert (Berlin) | Podella, Thomas (Lübeck) | Et al.
[English version] I. Begriff Der Begriff R. bezeichnet die komplexe Handlungssequenz einzelner, in einem logischen Funktionszusammenhang und nach einer festgelegten R.-Syntax miteinander verbundener Riten. R. finden sich nicht nur in rel., sondern auch in anderen gesellschaftlichen - polit. wie sozialen - Kontexten. Die Bed. von R. für die Teilnehmer läßt sich weder auf eine integrative (Legitimations-R.) noch auf eine die normale Ordnung temporär außer Kraft setzende Funktion - dies die beiden Extr…

Königsweg

(112 words)

Author(s): Podella, Thomas (Lübeck)
[English version] Als K. (hebr. dæræk hammælæk, akkad. girru šarri, arab. darb/tarīq as-sulṭāni) bezeichnet man die alte Handelsstraße in Jordanien, die in der altoriental. und röm. Ant. Damaskos mit dem Golf von Aqaba verband und darum mit der westl. via maris die wichtigste Verkehrsverbindung auf der Nord-Süd-Achse in Syrien-Palästina bildete. Der Name K. stammt aus dem AT (Nm 20,17; 21,22). Als Verkehrs- und Handelsstraße diente der K. auch den östl. Nachbarvölkern, sowohl mil. Interessen als auch dem Handel mit Produkten aus Südar…

Libanos

(263 words)

Author(s): Podella, Thomas (Lübeck)
[English version] [1] s. Weihrauch s. Weihrauch Podella, Thomas (Lübeck) [English version] [2] der Libanon (Λίβανος, lat. Libanus). Gebirgszug im Norden Syriens zw. der Mittelmeerküste und dem Antilibanos im Landesinneren. Die Bezeichnung (hebr. lebānôn, ugarit. Lbnm, akkad. Labnāna, arab. Lubnān) stammt von der semit. Wurzel * lbn “weiß”, d.h. der “weiße Berg”. Sagenhaft ist der Bericht über die Abstammung des L. von einem Riesen bei Philon von Byblos (Eus. Pr. Ev. I,10,9). Die ältesten Nachrichten stammen aus at. und assyr. Quellen. Der L. erstreckt sich auf einer Länge vo…

Religion

(12,041 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt) | Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Assmann, Jan (Heidelberg) | Podella, Thomas (Lübeck) | Colpe, Carsten (Berlin) | Et al.
I. Einleitung [English version] A. Bestimmung des Begriffs Als substantivistischer Terminus der rel. Selbstbeschreibung bezeichnet “R.” ein System von gemeinsamen Praktiken, individuellen Glaubensvorstellungen, kodifizierten Normen und theologischen Erklärungsmustern, dessen Gültigkeit zumeist auf ein autoritatives Prinzip oder Wesen zurückgeführt wird. Für die R.-Wissenschaft ist der R.-Begriff dagegen eine rein heuristische Kategorie, mit der jene Praktiken, Vorstellungen, Normen und theologischen Kon…

Lykos

(1,947 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Günther, Linda-Marie (München) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Λύκος). Mythologie und Religion: L. [1-9], Historische Personen: L. [10-13], Flüsse: L. [14-19]. [English version] [1] Sohn des Poseidon und der Pleiade Kelaino Sohn des Poseidon und der Pleiade Kelaino [1] (Ps.-Eratosth. katasterismoi 23), nur Apollod. 3,111 erwähnt seine Entrückung auf die Inseln der Seligen, vielleicht, um ihn von L. [6], mit dem er von Hyg. fab. 31, 76 und 157 trotz der Abstammung von Poseidon zusammengebracht wird, zu differenzieren. Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [English version] [2] Sohn des Prometheus und der Kelaino Sohn des Prometheus und der Kelaino…

Midian

(112 words)

Author(s): Podella, Thomas (Lübeck)
[English version] [1] Sohn Abrahams und der Ketura In der Genealogie der Genesis Sohn Abrahams und der Ketura (Gn 25,2). Podella, Thomas (Lübeck) [English version] [2] Landschaft südl. von Edom (hebr. midyān, arab. madyān). Im AT Bezeichnung einer Landschaft südl. von Edom und östl. des Golfes von Aqaba. Die Region ist vermutlich die Heimat des späteren israelitischen Nationalgottes Jahwe. Seit dem 13./12. Jh.v.Chr. sind Besiedlung, Handel, Keramikproduktion und Kamelzucht arch. nachgewiesen. Seit dem 8. Jh.v.Chr. sind die Mid…

Libanomanteia

(14 words)

Author(s): Podella, Thomas (Lübeck)
see Divination [German version] Libanos see Weihrauch see Incense Podella, Thomas (Lübeck)

Menetekel

(128 words)

Author(s): Podella, Thomas (Lübeck)
[German version] Properly Mene-tekel-ufarsin, a cryptic Aramaic inscription in the literary context of Dan 5:25-28 (within an Aramaic apocalypse in Dan 2-7), written by a supernatural hand on the wall of the palace during a banquet given by Belsazar, the heir to the Babylonian throne. The elements of this writing have been interpreted as cuneiform signs for weights (Neo-Babylonian manû‘mina’, šiqlu‘shekel’; mišlu/ zūzu‘half’/‘to share’), or as Aramaic terms in cuneiform script, in the order mina, shekel, half-shekel. Daniel interpreted the writing as a play on the words manû ‘to c…

Mabartha

(38 words)

Author(s): Podella, Thomas (Lübeck)
[German version] (Aramaic maʿbartā, ‘ford, passage’; Greek Μαβάρθα/ Mabártha; Latin Mamortha). Name of a place or landscape in Palestine between Ebal and Garizim, near Neapolis (Talmud: jTaan 4,68c,74-d,1; Jos. BI 4,449; Plin. HN 5,69). Podella, Thomas (Lübeck)

Sacrifice

(10,943 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt) | Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Quack, Joachim (Berlin) | Haas, Volkert (Berlin) | Podella, Thomas (Lübeck) | Et al.
I. Religious studies [German version] A. General Sacrifice is one of the central concepts in describing ritual religion in ancient and modern cultures. In European Modernity, the term sacrifice (directly or indirectly influenced by Christian theology of the sacrificial death of Jesus Christ to redeem mankind) also has an intimation towards individual self-giving ('sacrifice of self'). The range of nuances in the modern meaning stretches to include discourses that have lost their religious motif and hav…

Libanus

(275 words)

Author(s): Podella, Thomas (Lübeck)
[German version] (Λίβανος/ Líbanos, Lat. Libanus). Mountain range in northern Syria between the Mediterranean coast and the Antilibanos in the interior. The name (Hebrew lebānôn, Ugaritic Lbnm, Akkadian Labnāna, Arabic Lubnān) derives from the Semitic root * lbn ‘white’, i.e. the ‘white mountain’. The tale of L.' descent from a giant in Philo of Byblus (Euseb. Praep. evang. I,10,9) is mythological. The earliest information is found in OT and Assyrian sources. The Lebanon extends for about 160 km almost parallel to the coast. Its highest elevation with 3126 m is Ǧeb…

Moab, Moabitis

(652 words)

Author(s): Podella, Thomas (Lübeck)
[German version] (Hebrew môāb; Egyptian mb; Akkadian ma--a-ba, ma-a-ba, mu-a-ba; LXX Μωαβ/ Mōab; Jos. Ant. Iud. 1,205 Μώαβος/ Mṓabos; Ios. passim Μωαβῖται/ Mōabîtai). Term for a land, state and people to the east of the Dead Sea between Ammon [2] in the north and Edom in the south. The earliest evidence is found in Egyptian texts of Ramses II, in a relief with inscription at the Temple of  Luxor, and then primarily in the OT, in inscriptions of the Moabite king Meša (KAI 181) and in Neo-Assyrian sources. The etymology of the name is doubtful. Settlement has been proved as early as t…

Lycus

(2,142 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Λύκος; Lýkos). Mythology and religion: L. [1-9], historical persons: L. [10-13], rivers: L. [14-19]. [German version] [1] Son of Poseidon and the Pleiad Celaeno Son of Poseidon and the Pleiad Celaeno [1] (Ps.-Eratosth. Katasterismoi 23), only Apollod. 3,111 mentions his translation to the Islands of the Blessed, possibly to differentiate him from L. [6], with whom he is connected by Hyg. Fab. 31, 76 and 157 in spite of the descent from Poseidon. Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Son of Prometheus and Celaeno Son of Prometheus and Celaeno [1], on whose tomb in th…

Medaba

(319 words)

Author(s): Podella, Thomas (Lübeck)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Dead Sea (textual finds) (Hebrew mêdebā, Moabitic mhdb, Arab. Mādebā, Greek Μήδαβα; Mḗdaba,‘ gently flowing water’). Settlement in the East Jordanian hill country on the King's Highway, 33 km south of Amman. Evidence of settlement dates back to the Middle Bronze Age II. From the early Iron Age only graves have been found. In the 9th cent. BC, M. was in the possession of the Israelites, but was then conquered and expanded by the Moabite king Meša ( Moab) (…

Melqart

(489 words)

Author(s): Podella, Thomas (Lübeck)
[German version] Phoenician deity; originally * mlk qrt (‘king of the city’), title of the city god of Tyrus. The oldest documentary evidence is found on the Bar-Hadad inscription (KAI 201) dated around 800 BC from Brēdsh (Buraiǧ), a village north of Aleppo. In the treaties of Asarhaddon [5. 27, IV 14] and Aššur-nēraris V. [5. 13, VI 22], written in cuneiform in the 7th cent BC, his name is recorded for the first time in connection with Tyre as d Mi-il-qar-tu. The name presupposes ancient concepts of a religious, god-worshipping kingdom. M. combined the features of a mythica…

Metre

(8,752 words)

Author(s): Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Leonhardt, Jürgen (Marburg/Lahn) | Hecker, Karl (Münster) | Quack, Joachim (Berlin) | Podella, Thomas (Lübeck) | Et al.
[German version] I. Preliminary remark Originally sung poetry, often accompanied by dance, metric literature was obviously subject to other formative conditions than poetry intended from the outset for spoken presentation or for reading. Texts of such kinds still show traces of their earlier sound form ( Music). Accordingly the form ranged from simple ‘melodic lines of sound’, as can be presumed for the ancient Orient and Israel ( parallelismus membrorum, strophic poetry, sometimes with rhythmic accent order, congruence of form and language s…

Hermon

(497 words)

Author(s): Podella, Thomas (Lübeck) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] [1] Mountain massif Mountain massif (maximum height 2,814 m) south of the Antilebanon; Hebrew Ḥærmôn (from ḥrm ‘ban, taboo’), Greek Ἀερμών; Aermṓn, Latin Hermon, modern Ǧabal aš-Šaiḫ, ‘mountain of the white-haired man’ / Ǧabal aṯ-Ṯalǧ, ‘snow mountain’. Dt 3:9 equates H. with Phoenician Śiriōn and Amorite Śenīr, hence H. would be found as Šryn in Ugaritic, Šarijana in Hittite and Saniru in Assyrian. Biblical tradition considers H. to be the northern border of the land conquered by Moses and Joshua east of the Jordan (Jos 11:17; Dt 3:8). F…

Laodicea

(1,011 words)

Author(s): Gerber, Jörg (Bochum) | Podella, Thomas (Lübeck) | Belke, Klaus (Vienna) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Λαοδίκεια; Laodíkeia). [German version] [1] Port-town in north-west Syria, modern Latakia This item can be found on the following maps: Syria | Theatre | | Coloniae | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Limes | Pompeius | Education / Culture (Λ. ἐπὶ τῇ θαλάσσῃ; L. epì têi thalássēi). Port in north-west Syria (now Latakia or al-Lāḏiqīya), not far from the Bronze Age Ugarit (Ra's Šamra). Founded by Seleucus I around 300 BC together with its sister towns of Antioch, Apamea and Seleucea (the so-called North Syrian Tetrapolis) and equipped with an…

Purity

(1,297 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Quack, Joachim (Berlin) | Podella, Thomas (Lübeck)
[German version] I. Mesopotamia In Sumerian the adjective kug and in Akkadian the corresponding adjective ellu express the principle of (cultic) purity. Both words also contain the nuance of 'bright', 'shining'. Sumerian kug and Akkadian ellu (when in textual dependence upon kug) mark characteristics of deities, localities (e.g., temples), (cult) objects, rites and periods of time as belonging to the sphere of the divine. This, however, does not necessarily mean that they must be in an uncontaminated state. In this respect kug is most often rendered as 'holy/sacred'. Akkadian ellu, …

Ecclesiastical/Religious law

(574 words)

Author(s): Podella, Thomas (Lübeck) | Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
[German version] I. Old Testament A religious law in the sense of a legal system existing alongside profane law or even preceding it, cannot be reconstructed for the old Israel. At the centre of recent discussions is the question of the ‘theologizing’ or the ‘Jahvism’ of the law. This refers especially to the concept occurring in Exodus (Ex 20,1 ff.: Decalogue and book of the covenant) of a God  Jehova as a lawgiver who thus functionally occupies a domain which in the Old Orient was reserved for roya…
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