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Honoratus

(167 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Official under Constantinus [2] II. Consularis Syriae, comes Orientis, praefectus praetorio Galliarum Official under Constantius [2] II. consularis Syriae (before AD 353; Lib. Ep. 251), comes Orientis (353-354; Amm. Marc. 14,1,3; 7,2; Lib. Ep. 386), praefectus praetorio Galliarum (355/357; Lib. Ep. 386 Foerster). From 359 to 361 he was the first praefectus urbis Constantinopolitanae (Chron. min. 1,239 Mommsen) and in this office he passed judgement on th…

Mavia

(101 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] Arabic princess who undertook raids in Palestine and Phoenicia c. AD 372. In 378 she made peace with Valens and requested the hermit Moses as bishop for her people (Socr. 4,36,1-12; Sozom. Hist. eccl. 6,38,1-9; Theod. Hist. eccl. 4,23). After the battle of Hadrianopolis [3] she supported the Romans with troops (Amm. Marc. 31,16,5; Sozom. Hist. eccl. 7,1,1). She married her daughter to the

Iovianus

(269 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] Flavius I. (Jovian), Roman emperor AD 363-364, born in Singidunum in 331, the son of the Comes Domesticorum Varronianus. His father-in-law was the Magister Militum Lucillianus, his wife was possibly called Charito (cf. Zon. 13,14). He served as Protector Domesticus under Constantius [2] II (Amm. Marc. 21,16,20), and under Julian [11] as Primicerius Domesticorum (Amm. Marc. 25,5,4). The day after Julian's death in battle against the Persians, I. was proclaimed emperor on 27 June 363, while still on Persian territory. He ended the Persian War and agreed to the conditions offered by Sapor II for a 30-year peace, with the Romans renouncing all claims to territories beyond the Tigris as well as to the cities of Nisibis and Singara (Amm. Marc. 25,7,9-11; Zos. 3,30f.). In the eyes of his contemporaries this was an ignominious peace (Amm. Marc. 25,7,10; 13; Eutr. 10,17; Lib. Or. 18,278ff.). I., himself a Christian, revoked all of Julian's anti-Christian measures and recalled the exiled clergy (Theod. Hist. eccl. 4,2; Philostorgius 8,5; Sozom. Hist. eccl. 6,3). He later withdrew his initial measures against the adherents of the old pagan beliefs (closure of temples: Socr. 3,24,5), only sorcery and magic arts remaining forbidden (Them. Or. 5,70b). From Edessa I. marched via Antioch to Ancyra, where together with his son Varronianus he assumed the consulate 364. Themistius gave the celebratory address, which is extant (Or. 5). Only a short time later, on 17 February 364, I. died in Dadastana on the way to Constant…

Miccalus

(47 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] (Μίκκαλος; Míkkalos). Antiochene, brother of the provincial governors Evagrius and Olympius. He was himself administrator of Thrace in AD 362. Libanius describes his dispute with his brother Olympius (Lib. Or. 63,30-35; cf. also Lib. Epist. 97-99, 149). PLRE 1, 602. Portmann, Werner (Berlin)

Artemius

(134 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)

Arintheus

(138 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] Flavius Arintheus, possibly a Goth, was a high-ranking soldier of the Christian faith. He distinguished himself in AD 355 as vice-commander of a Palatine schola in the Alemanni War of Constantius II (Amm. Marc. 15,4,10). In the Persian War of 363 he led the left wing of the cavalry as comes rei militaris (Amm. Marc. 24,1,2). After the de…

Valentinianus

(2,009 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Flavius Valentinianus I Roman emperor 364-375. Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] I. Origins and rise V. was born in Cibalae in Pannonia in AD 321 (Zos. 3,36,2; Amm. Marc. 30,6,6) as the son of the comes rei militaris Gratianus [1]. In 357, he was tribunus in Gaul (Amm. Marc. 16,11,6 f.); beginning in 360/1, he held high military office in Mesopotamia; in 362, he was comes et tribunus cornutorum there (Philostorgius, Historia ecclesiae 7,7). According to some Christian traditions, Iulianus [11] exiled him to Egyptian Thebes [1] in 362…

Clematius

(214 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] From Alexandria, consularis Palaestinae c. 352/3 AD C. of Alexandria was the consularis Palaestinae (Lib. Ep. 693) in c. AD 352/3. In the winter of 353/4 he became the victim of an intrigue in Antioch [1] and was executed without trial (Amm. Marc. 14,1,3). PLRE 1,213 (Clematius 1). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Consularis Palaestinae 357-358 AD C. held a high office in Antioch [1] at the time of the caesar Gallus ( Constantius [5]), probably as an agens in rebus (Lib. Ep. 405, 435); in AD 357-358 consularis Palaestinae (Lib. Ep. 317). He was in clo…

Ursicinus

(128 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] High-ranking military officer under Constantius [2] II. He was magister equitum in the East from AD 349-359. On orders from Constantius [5] Gallus, he conducted trials for high treason in Antioch [1] in 354 (Amm. Marc. 14,9,1 and 3) and in 355 deposed the usurper Silvanus [3] in Gaul (Amm. Marc. 15,5,18-31). From 357 on the Persian front again, he lost his command owing to court intrigues (Amm. Marc. 18,5,4), but in 359/60 was again appointed magister peditum (Amm. Marc. 18,6) and relieved of his position once more because the loss of Amida (in 360) was im…

Ursulus

(91 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] Comes sacrarum largitionum 355-361, an important aide to the emperor Julianus [11] in his financial distress (Amm. 22,3,7). With Constantius [2] II he visited the ruins of  Amida in 360 AD and levelled criticism at the soldiers' lack of courage (Amm. 20,11,5). Perhaps because of that he was condemned to death by military officers in the court of Chalcedon which Julianus had commissioned after the death of Constantius. Julianus later distanced himself from the verdict (Amm. 22,3,8;  cf.  Lib. Or. 18,152; PLRE 1,988 no. 1).…

Marcellianus

(73 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] Son of the praefectus praetorio Galliarum Maximinus [3], through whose influence he was appointed dux Valeriae c. AD 373. He promoted the construction of a fortification ordered by Valentinianus I on the territory of the Quadi. He had their king Gabinius [II 5] treacherously murdered in 374 AD (Amm. Marc. 29,6,3-5; in Zos. 4,16,4 he is called Celestius). PLRE 1, 543f. no. 2 and 190 (Celestius). Portmann, Werner (Berlin)

Bauto

(132 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] Flavius B. was a Frank (Zos. 4,33,2) and a professed pagan (Ambr. Epist. 57). Under  Gratianus, he rose to the position of mag. mil. in c. AD 380 (Zos. 4,33,1) and aided  Theodosius I against the Goths. In 383, he became mag. peditum praesentalis and the authoritative advisor at the court of  Valentinianus II (Ambr. Epist. 24,4,8; 18,1,57). Although he was  Ambrosius' adversary in the dispute about the altar of Victory in 384, he seems to have aligned himself in the end wi…

Romanus

(117 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] Comes Africae from AD 364 to 373; he was supposed to protect the city of Leptis Magna from attacks by the Austoriani (Amm. Marc. 28,6,1-6). His administration led to frequent complaints from the population, but R. was supported at court by his relative, the magister officiorum Remigius (Amm. Marc. 27,9,1 f.). In 37…

Decentius

(188 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Magnus D. Caesar 350-353 AD Caesar during AD 350-353. A relative (possibly brother) of the usurper Magnus Magnentius ([Aur. Vict.] Epit. Caes. 42,2; Zon. 13,8,2) who made him Caesar in Milan at the end…

Dagalaifus

(63 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] Was appointed comes domesticorum by Julian in AD 361 (Amm. Marc. 21,8,1) and magister equitum by Jovian; in 364 he was influential in the elections of Jovian and Valentinian I (Amm. Marc. 25,5,2; Philostorgius 8,8). In 364-366 as magister peditum( equitum?) he fought against the Alemanni (Amm. Marc. 26,5,9), in 366 he was consul. PLRE 1, 239. …

Andragathius

(68 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] From AD 383-388 A. was mag. equitum of the usurper Maximus. He murdered the emperor Gratian in 383 (Ambr. Commentarius in psalmis 61,23-25; Zos. 4,35,6). In 388 he prepared the defence of Maximus against Theodosius I and placed himself at the head of the fleet in the Adriatic. After Theodosius' victory he plunged himself into the sea (Oros. 7,35; Zos. 4,46 f.). Portmann, Werner (Berlin)

Eusebia

(141 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Wife of Constantius II from Thessalonica; perhaps the daughter of Eusebius [1]. From about AD 352 she was the second wife of Constantius II (Julian Or. 3,109a-b, 110d). She was held to be unusually beautiful (Amm. Marc. 18,3,2), and is supposed to have exercised a strong influence on the emperor (cf. Amm. Marc. 21,16,16), to such an extent as to arouse the suspicion of her contemporaries ([Aur. Vict.] Epit. Caes. 42,20). On her…

Hortarius

(61 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] King of the Alamanni, who, together with other Alamannic kings, was defeated by Julian's army at Strasbourg in AD 357 (Amm. Marc. 16,12,1). He surrendered in 358 (Amm. Marc. 17,10,5-9) and strove after a peaceful agreement both with the Romans and with the neighbouring Germanic tribes (Amm. Marc. 18,2,2; 13f.). PLRE 1, 444 (H.1). Portmann, Werner (Berlin)

Bacurius

(124 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] Prince (according to Rufin. Hist. 1,10: King) of the Iberi to the north of Armenia. He entered into office in the service of the Romans as a protector possibly as early as 378-369 and fought as the tribunus of one of the two scholae palatinae at Adrianopolis (Amm. Marc. 31,12,16). B. became dux Palaestinae and …
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