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Jones, Arnold Hugh Martin

(801 words)

Author(s): Rebenich, Stefan
British ancient historian. Born Birkenhead 9. 3. 1904, died 9. 4. 1970 aboard ship on a passage from Brindisi to Patras. Educated at Cheltenham College and New College, Oxford; 1926–1946 fellow of All Souls’ College, Oxford, while also (1929–1934) reader in ancient history at the Univ. of Cairo. 1939–1946 lecturer in ancient history at Wadham College, Oxford; 1946–1951 prof. of ancient history at Univ. College, London; 1951–1970 prof. of ancient history at Univ. of Cambridge and fellow of Jesus College. Career, works and influence After an outstanding degree in Literae humaniores at …

Chantraine, Heinrich

(439 words)

Author(s): Rebenich, Stefan
German ancient historian and numismatist. Born 10. 2. 1929 in Betzdorf/Sieg, died 9. 12. 2002 in Mossautal. 1948–1954 studied classical philology and history at Mainz; 1955 doctorate and 1965 habil, also Mainz. From 1965 prof. ord. of ancient history at Univ. of Mannheim; Rector there 1985–1988. Background and work The son of a doctor, C. found his way to classical studies as a student. His chief influence at Mainz was the ancient historian Hans-Ulrich Instinsky. His doctorate [1] examined chronological and legal issues of the agrarian commiss…

Mommsen, Theodor

(2,476 words)

Author(s): Rebenich, Stefan
German ancient historian. Born Garding 30. 11. 1817, died Berlin 1. 11. 1903. 1838–1843 studied law at Kiel; 1843 doctorate there. 1848 prof. ext. in Roman law at Leipzig; dismissed for political reasons 1851. 1852 prof. ord. in Roman law at Zurich, 1854 at Breslau. 1857 appointed to research professorship at Berliner Akademie to edit the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum; 1858 full member of the Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1875–1895 its secretary. From 1861 prof. ord. in Roman antiquities at Univ. of Berlin. 1902 Nobel Prize for Literature. Biography and career M. was the …

Syme, Ronald

(1,571 words)

Author(s): Rebenich, Stefan
New Zealand-British ancient historian. Born Eltham, New Zealand, 11. 3. 1903, died Oxford 4. 9. 1989. Read classics 1921–1923 at Auckland and Wellington; from 1925 studied at Oriel College, Oxford. 1929–1949 fellow and tutor in ancient history at Trinity College, Oxford. 1942–1945 prof. of classical philology at Univ. of Istanbul; 1949–1970 Camden Prof. of Ancient History at Univ. of Oxford and fellow of Brasenose College, 1970–1989 fellow of Wolfson College, Oxford. Scholarly career S. came from New Zealand. His scholarly work reflects his background as an academic …

Hirschfeld, Otto

(365 words)

Author(s): Rebenich, Stefan
German ancient historian and epigraphist. Born Königsberg 16. 3. 1843, died Berlin 27. 3. 1922. 1859–1863 studied classical philology and ancient history at Königsberg, Bonn and Berlin; doctorate 1863 in Königsberg; habil. 1869 in Göttingen. 1872–1876 prof. ord. in ancient ¶ history at Prague; 1876–1885 at Vienna; 1885–1917 at Berlin. Scholarly career and works The son of a Jewish businessman, H. had himself baptized a Protestant in 1870. As a scholar, H. was influenced by Theodor Mommsen, through whom he found his way to Latin epigraphy. His resea…

Beloch, Karl Julius

(1,042 words)

Author(s): Rebenich, Stefan
German ancient historian. Born 21. 1. 1854 in Petschkendorf (Silesia, now Pieszków, Poland), died 1. 2. 1929 in Rome. 1872–1875 studied classics at Univs. of Palermo, Heidelberg and Rome; doctorate 1875 in Heidelberg; habil. 1877 in Rome. 1879 prof. ext. of ancient history at Univ. of Rome; 1891–1915 and 1924–1929 prof. ord. there. Scholarly background B., the son of a Silesian landowner, lived in Italy even as a young man because of a lung condition. He studied at Italian univs. and at Heidelberg, and gained his scholarly qualifications there. In 1…

Harnack, Adolf von

(493 words)

Author(s): Rebenich, Stefan
German ecclesiastical historian. Born Dorpat (now Tartu, Estonia) 7. 5. 1851, died ¶ Heidelberg 10. 6. 1930. 1869–1872 studied Protestant theology at Dorpat and Leipzig; 1873 doctorate and 1874 habil. Leipzig. 1876 prof. ext. of ecclesiastical history at Leipzig; 1879–1886 prof. ord. in Giessen, 1886–1888 in Marburg and 1888–1924 in Berlin. 1911–1930 president of the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft; 1905–1921 director-general of the Königliche Bibliothek (from 1918 Preussische Staatsbibliothek) in Berlin. Inherited noble title 1914. Biography and works The son of Theodosiu…

Hirschfeld, Otto

(344 words)

Author(s): Rebenich, Stefan
Dt. Althistoriker und Epigraphiker. Geb. am 16. 3. 1843 in Königsberg, gest. am 27. 3. 1922 in Berlin. 1859–1863 Studium der Klass. Philologie und der Alten Gesch. in Königsberg, Bonn und Berlin; Prom. 1863 in Königsberg; Habil. 1869 in Göttingen. 1872–1876 o.Prof. für Alte Gesch. in Prag; 1876–1885 in Wien; 1885–1917 in Berlin. Wissenschaflicher Werdegang und Werk Der Sohn eines jüd. Kaufmanns ließ sich 1870 evangelisch taufen. Wiss. wurde H. durch Theodor Mommsen geprägt, durch den er den Zugang zur lat. Epigraphik fand. Seine althistor. Forschu…

Harnack, Adolf von

(400 words)

Author(s): Rebenich, Stefan
Dt. Kirchenhistoriker. Geb. am 7. 5. 1851 in Dorpat, gest. am 10. 6. 1930 in Heidelberg. 1869–1872 Studium der evang. Theologie in Dorpat und Leipzig; 1873 Prom. und 1874 Habil. ebda. 1876 ao.Prof. für Kirchengesch. in Leipzig; 1879–1886 o.Prof. in Gießen, 1886–1888 in Marburg und 1888–1924 in Berlin. 1911–1930 Präsident der Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft; 1905–1921 Generaldirektor der Königlichen Bibl. (seit 1918 Preuß. Staatsbibl.) in Berlin. Seit 1914 erblicher Adelstitel. Biographie und Werk Der Sohn des Dorpater Theologieprofessors Theodosius H. distanzierte…

Mommsen, Theodor

(2,138 words)

Author(s): Rebenich, Stefan
Dt. Althistoriker. Geb. am 30. 11. 1817 in Garding, gest. am 1. 11. 1903 in Berlin. 1838–1843 Jurastudium in Kiel; 1843 Prom. ebda. 1848 ao.Prof. für Röm. Recht in Leipzig; 1851 aus polit. Gründen entlassen. 1852 o.Prof. für Röm. Recht in Zürich, 1854 in Breslau; 1857 Ruf auf eine Forschungsprofessur an der Berliner Akad. zur Herausgabe des Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum; 1858 ordentliches Mitglied der Preuß. Akad. der Wiss., 1875–1895 Sekretar. Ab 1861 Ordinariat für röm. Altertumskunde an der Univ. Berlin. 1902 Literaturnobelpreis. Biographie und Werdegang M. war Sohn eine…

Chantraine, Heinrich

(395 words)

Author(s): Rebenich, Stefan
Dt. Althistoriker und Numismatiker. Geb. am 10. 2. 1929 in Betzdorf/Sieg, gest. am 9. 12. 2002 in Mossautal. 1948–1954 Studium der Klass. Phil. und Gesch. in Mainz; 1955 Prom. und 1965 Habil ebda.; ab 1965 o.Prof. für Alte Gesch. an der Univ. Mannheim; 1985–1988 Rektor ebda. Werdegang und Werk Der Sohn eines Arztes fand durch sein Studium zur Alt.wiss. In Mainz prägte ihn bes. der Althistoriker Hans-Ulrich Instinsky. Seine Prom. [1] untersuchte chronologische und staatsrechtliche Probleme der gracchischen Ackerkommission, des Jugurthinisch…

Syme, Ronald

(1,449 words)

Author(s): Rebenich, Stefan
Neuseeländ.-brit. Althistoriker. Geb. am 11. 3. 1903 in Eltham (Neuseeland), gest. am 4. 9. 1989 in Oxford. 1921–1923 Studium der Alt.wiss. in Auckland und Wellington; ab 1925 Studium in Oxford (Oriel College); 1929–1949 Fellow und Tutor in Alter Gesch. am Trinity College, Oxford; 1942–1945 Prof. für Klass. Philologie an der Univ. Istanbul; 1949–1970 Camden Prof. für Alte Gesch. an der Univ. Oxford und Fellow des Brasenose College, 1970–1989 Fellow des Wolfson College in Oxford. Wissenschaftlicher Werdegang S. stammte aus Neuseeland. Sein wiss. Werk reflektiert seine…

Jones, Arnold Hugh Martin

(759 words)

Author(s): Rebenich, Stefan
Brit. Althistoriker. Geb. am 9. 3. 1904 in Birkenhead, gest. am 9. 4. 1970 auf der Schiffspassage von Brindisi nach Patras. Ausbildung im Cheltenham College und New College in Oxford; 1926–1946 Fellow am All Souls College, Oxford; zugleich 1929–1934 Reader in Alter Gesch. an der Univ. Kairo. 1939–1946 Lecturer in Alter Gesch. am Wadham College, Oxford; 1946–1951 Prof. (Chair) für Alte Gesch. am Univ. College London; 1951–1970 Prof. (Chair) für Alte Gesch. an der Univ. Cambridge und Fellow am Jesus College. Werdegang, Werk und Wirkung Nach einem herausragenden Abschluss in Literae…

Beloch, Karl Julius

(963 words)

Author(s): Rebenich, Stefan
Dt. Althistoriker. Geb. am 21. 1. 1854 in Petschkendorf (Schlesien), gest. am 1. 2. 1929 in Rom. 1872–1875 Studium der Alt.wiss. an den Univ. Palermo, Heidelberg und Rom; Prom. 1875 in Heidelberg; Habil. 1877 in Rom. 1879 ao.Prof. für Alte Gesch. an der Univ. Rom; 1891–1915 und 1924–1929 o.Prof. ebda. Wissenschaftlicher Werdegang B., Sohn eines schlesischen Rittergutsbesitzers, lebte schon als junger Mann wegen eines Bronchialleidens in Italien. Er studierte an ital. Universitäten und in Heidelberg und qualifizierte sich dort wiss.; 1879 erhi…

Rostovtzeff

(191 words)

Author(s): Rebenich, Stefan
[English Version] Rostovtzeff, Michael Iwanowitsch (10.11.1870 bei Kiew – 20.10.1952 New Haven, CT). Der Althistoriker R. wurde von der russ. und dt. Altertumswiss. geprägt. Die Oktoberrevolution 1918 zwang ihn zur Flucht zunächst nach Schweden, dann nach Oxford. 1920 folgte er einem Ruf an die Universität von Madison, WI. 1925 wechselte er nach Yale. Von dort leitete er die Ausgrabungen in Dura-Europos. In Yale entstanden neben einer Vielzahl von Spezialstudien seine großen Synthesen: »The Social a…

Fabiola

(196 words)

Author(s): Rebenich, Stefan
[German Version] (died c. 400 ce), Roman aristocrat. Fabiola belonged to a circle of noblewomen who during the second half of the 4th century ce advocated the ascetic life, rejected their traditional role in society, and used their inherited wealth for charitable purposes. Our acquaintance with her life comes from the writings of Jerome (esp. his obituary for her in Jer. Ep. 77). After her first marriage ended in divorce and her second husband died, she dedicated herself to an ascetic life, sold her possessions, supported clergymen, virgins, and monks, an…

Mommsen, Theodor

(433 words)

Author(s): Rebenich, Stefan
[German Version] (Nov 30, 1817, Garding, Eiderstedt – Nov 1, 1903, Charlottenburg, Berlin), one of the most important ancient historians of modern times. After studying jurisprudence at Kiel (1838–1843), Mommsen, the son of a Protestant clergyman, traveled through Italy, where he laid the foundation for a comprehensive collection of Latin inscriptions. During the Revolution of 1848, he championed a free and united Germany. In the fall of 1848, he traded his work as a journalist in Rendsburg for an…

Meyer, Eduard

(318 words)

Author(s): Rebenich, Stefan
[German Version] (Jan 25, 1855, Hamburg – Aug 31, 1930, Berlin), one of the most distinguished German scholars of ancient history. After his school years at the Johanneum in Hamburg, he studied Middle Eastern studies in Bonn and Leipzig, where he was awarded a doctorate in Egyptology in 1875 and gained his Habilitation in ancient history in 1879. He was appointed professor at the University of Breslau in 1885. The first volume of his main work Geschichte des Altertums (History of antiquity, 5 vols., 1884–1902; new ed., 8 vols, 1907ff.) had appeared shortly before his appo…

Rostovtzeff, Michael Ivanovich

(212 words)

Author(s): Rebenich, Stefan
[German Version] (Nov 10, 1870, near Kiev – Oct 20, 1952, New Haven, CT), a student of ancient history, was informed by both Russian and German classical studies. The October Revolution in 1918 forced him to flee – first to Sweden, then to Oxford. In 1920 he accepted a call to the University of Wisconsin in Madison, Wisconsin. In 1925 he moved on to Yale; while there he led the excavations at Dura-Europos. Besides a great number of specialized studies, while at Yale he wrote his great syntheses: The Social and Economic History of the Roman Empire (1926) and The Social and Economic History of …

Dacia

(98 words)

Author(s): Rebenich, Stefan
[German Version] The Dacians originally settled between the lower Danube, the Tisza and the Carpathian arc. The Romans subdued them in three wars (85–106 ce). Established in 106, the province of Dacia (Transylvania, Oltenia, Banat) was abandoned by Aurelian around 271. ¶ The name was carried over to territories lying south of the Danube. Christianity probably found its way into Dacia as early as the 3rd century. Stefan Rebenich Bibliography H. Wolff, “Dakien,” in: F. Vittinghoff, ed., Europäische Wirtschaftsund Sozialgeschichte in der römischen Kaiserzeit, 1990, 616–630 J. Burian…
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