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Bleichereigewerbe

(1,463 words)

Author(s): Reith, Reinhold
1. DefinitionAls Bleichen bezeichnet man die Entziehung oder Zerstörung der organischen Farbstoffe in pflanzlichen Spinnfasern, um den daraus hergestellten Geweben ein möglichst weißes Aussehen zu geben. Neben der Garn- und Strangbleiche war insbes. die Tuchbleiche wichtig, mit der v. a. die Leinwand, der Barchent oder der Kattun marktfähig gemacht wurde. Für Tuche, die nicht für den Export bestimmt waren, bestand kein Bleichzwang. Für das Bleichen der groben Tuche aus Baumwolle des freien Zürcher Tüchligewerbes galt 1564, dass es »nit der bleickeren als (oder) man…
Date: 2019-11-19

Tiefbau

(731 words)

Author(s): Reith, Reinhold
In Abgrenzung zum Hochbau werden verschiedene Bereiche des Bauwesens zum T. gerechnet, so u. a. der Wasserbau, der Bau von Deichen und Tunneln sowie der Straßen- und Wegebau, im 19. Jh. auch die Verlegung der Schienen-Wege der Eisenbahn. Bes. breit war in der Nz. das Tätigkeitsfeld im Wasserbau mit der Anlage von Kanälen und Bewässerungsanlagen, der Errichtung von Brunnen und Wasserleitungen sowie entsprechenden Leitungen zur Entsorgung (Assanierung). Auch der Bau von Hafen-Anlagen gehört am Rande zum T. Selbst mit dem Festungsbau (der zum Hochbau zählt) wa…
Date: 2019-11-19

Gesellen

(1,947 words)

Author(s): Reith, Reinhold
1. BegriffWährend man im MA im dt. Sprachraum den nach der Lehrzeit im Handwerk Tätigen als Knecht bezeichnete, wurde die Bezeichnung »G.« (von »Saalgenosse«) zunächst auf die Mitglieder gesellig-kommunikativer Zusammenschlüsse (also auch auf die Meister) bezogen (Geselligkeit). Nach der Bildung erster Zusammenschlüsse von G. übertrug man den Begriff auf die im Handwerk Tätigen (»Eid-G.«); in der heute gängigen Bedeutung findet er sich z. B. 1343 in Speyer (»geselleschaft« der Weberknechte). Die Begriffe Knecht und G. wurden während der Nz. auch synonym gebra…
Date: 2019-11-19

Wagner

(892 words)

Author(s): Reith, Reinhold
1. BegriffDie aus dem Niederdeutschen stammenden Berufsbezeichnungen Stellmacher bzw. Rademacher sowie die des W. im Oberdeutschen gehen auf die wichtigsten Produkte dieses Handwerks zurück: den Wagen, das (Ge-) Stell des Wagens oder des Pfluges und das Rad [5. 244]. Das Arbeitsgebiet umfasste auch Karren, Schlitten, Leitern und Eggen. Christoph Weigels Ständebuch nennt 1698 die Schubkarren und Schanzkarren, den Pflug und den gemeinen Karren sowie die vierrädrigen Karren, »woher ausser denen rasselnden Bier-Brauer Wägelein … die Last- und Fra…
Date: 2019-11-19

Schraubstock

(1,088 words)

Author(s): Reith, Reinhold
Zu den wichtigsten Geräte-Innovationen der Frühen Nz. zählt der Sch. Das Hausbuch der Mendelschen Zwölfbrüderstiftung, eine Nürnberger Bilderhandschrift von hoher kulturgeschichtlicher Bedeutung, zeigte um 1425 (und noch 1501) einen Messerer, der ein beschaltes Messer mit der Feile bearbeitet und dabei eine Winkelstütze (Auflage, Feilstock) benutzt [1. Bildbd., 28, 107]. Der Schlosser Ulrich Hach (um 1528) sitzt dagegen an einem Arbeitstisch mit Sch., in den er einen Schlüssel eingespannt hat; die Feile kann er nun mit beiden Händen führen [1. Bildbd., 216]. Dieses Bild ist…
Date: 2019-11-19

Hosier

(1,105 words)

Author(s): Reith, Reinhold
1. Knitting Hatters and trouser-makers creating knitted wares were active in cities in the late Middle Ages. In the first half of the 16th century, the stocking in the style of the Spanish court was a fixture, and knitters generally specialized in woollen stockings and caps. Beginning in the 16th century, knitters formed into guilds, like the stocking-knitters of Paris in 1527, the hose- and beret-makers of Strasbourg in 1574, and the hosiers of Nuremberg in 1583. The first mention of a…
Date: 2019-10-14

Lace

(1,022 words)

Author(s): Reith, Reinhold
1. Definition and manufactureLace (French  dentelles, Dutch kant, German  Spitze, Italian  merletto) is a collective term for decorative elements made of thread or thread and fabric (Textiles). In all its forms it is openwork: spaces of various sizes between the threads constitute a pattern. Lace must not be confused with embroidery (Textile technology). Its origins probably go back to the decorative treatment of hems by the darning, knotting, or braiding of warp threads.Technically there are two kinds of lace: needle lace and bobbin lace. In the former, threads a…
Date: 2019-10-14

Comb maker

(846 words)

Author(s): Reith, Reinhold
Combs of various forms, materials, and styles of decoration survive dating back to Antiquity. In church liturgy, richly decorated consecration combs were used during the consecration of a bishop, and some survive as grave goods [9]. Most surviving combs since the 14th century were from the profane sphere [5. 33]. Combs, as Christoph Weigel stated in his 1698 book of the estates, served ornament and cleanliness. The hair comb, however, was also a metaphor for a feminine craving for extravagance. They were used to remove infestations…
Date: 2019-10-14

Locksmith

(888 words)

Author(s): Reith, Reinhold
1. OccupationThe metalworking craft (Crafts and trades) of the locksmith (Neolatin  serator/ serifex, Dutch  slotenmaker, German  Schlosser, Kleinschmied, Kunstschmied, French  serrurier, Italian chiavaio), developed from the 14th century within the sphere of activity of the smithy. Guilds were formed, sometimes jointly with winchmakers, spurriers, gunsmiths, or clockmakers, specialties that had also developed out of smithing. The work of the locksmith included in particular making padlocks, door locks, locks for c…
Date: 2019-10-14

Crafts and trades

(9,993 words)

Author(s): Reith, Reinhold
1. Concepts and definitions“Craft” denotes skilled manufacture (Latin  opus manu factum), “trade” in this sense an occupation of exercising such a craft. The German Handwerk historically combines the sense of both. Grimm's Deutsches Wörterbuch defines Handwerk (Latin  opificium or  ars manuaria) as “work of the hands,” and in the strict sense limits it to “a trade continually conducted” ("ein dauernd betriebenes Gewerbe”), the accomplishment of which, as distinct from art or basic manual work, requires manual skill ( ars mechanica) (vol. 10, 424). Johann Beckmann in …
Date: 2019-10-14

Carter

(1,015 words)

Author(s): Reith, Reinhold
1. Concept and terms The terms referring to the professions of cartwright, wheelwright and carter go back to the most important products of the trade: the waggon, the frame of the waggon or plow and the wheel[5. 244]. The area of work also comprised carts, sleds or sleighs, rack waggons and harrows. Christoph Weigel’s books of estates mentions in 1698 wheelbarrows and Schanzkarren, the plough and common carts as well as the four-wheel carts, “to which belong, besides the little rattling brewers’ waggons, the trucks and carriers’ carts / long distance and…
Date: 2019-10-14

Chimney sweep

(1,240 words)

Author(s): Reith, Reinhold
1. Origins and early examples The profession of chimney sweep (German  Kaminfeger; also: Kaminkehrer; South German for Italian  spazzacamino; Old Bavarian Kümich-/ Künikehrer, east of the Inn Rauchfangkehrer, North German Schlotfeger and Schornsteinfeger, Middle German and Saxon also Essenkehrer[3. 232 f.]) emerged in the course of the early modern era. As stone construction spread, along with multistorey houses and the use of black coal for heating (especially in London), the earlier use of open-hearth fireplaces without a flue g…
Date: 2019-10-14

Bleaching

(1,641 words)

Author(s): Reith, Reinhold
1. Definition Bleaching is the removal or destruction of organic dyes in spun vegetable fibers with the aim of making the fabric product as white as possible. The bleaching of yarns and threads was important, but so in particular was the bleaching of cloths that made linen, fustian, andcalico in particular marketable. There was no need to bleach cloths that were not intended for export. In 1564, the Zurich clothmakers’ guild stipulated that the preparation of coarse cotton was “not bleachers’ work or the work of men, but should in the main be done by women” ( nit der bleickeren als (oder)…
Date: 2019-10-14

Glass

(3,536 words)

Author(s): Reith, Reinhold
1. Definition Physically speaking, glass is a frozen, supercooled liquid. Its viscosity makes it easy to shape but susceptible to breakage. Its most important property is its translucency. Natural or mineral glass (obsidian) is produced by volcanic activity. Artificial glass is made by fusing a mixture of sand, potash and lime at a temperature exceeding 1,400 C (2,550 F) and then shaping it while it is hot and viscous. Small decorative items were already being cast in Egypt by around 3000 BCE, and…
Date: 2019-10-14

Pencil

(812 words)

Author(s): Reith, Reinhold
A graphite pencil for writing and drawing consists of a lead core inserted or glued into a wooden holder. During the Renaissance, artists were already using an elongated writing instrument alongside chalk, ruddle, and charcoal: a pointed wire made of an alloy of lead and tin, curved at the top – a precursor of the pencil. In 1540 the Italian calligrapher Giovambattista Palatino provided an illustration of “all the tools a good scribe uses” – including dividers and metal pens, but no pencils [3. 49]. In 1562, in his  Sarepta oder Bergpostill, a collection of 16 sermons preached …
Date: 2020-10-06

Building materials

(2,812 words)

Author(s): Reith, Reinhold
In the late Middle Ages and the early modern period, the major building materials were timber, stone, lime, sand, and clay. Their availability substantially influenced construction technology and architectural style (Architectural theory); over the long term, a shift from timber to stone (or brick) can be observed. The uneven geographical distribution of building materials and the high cost of transporting them made early modern construction heavily dependent on the particular  milieu naturel[12]. The surrounding countryside constituted the primary source of supply…
Date: 2019-10-14

Pewterer

(969 words)

Author(s): Reith, Reinhold
1. Products and distribution Tin was worked in Central Europe from the 13th century on by tinsmiths or “pewterers” (German  Zinngießer, “tin casters”;  Kannengießer “jug casters”). The foundation of the first pewterers’ corporations is documented in the 14th century (Guild). This small trade, which took hold only in cities to begin with (Crafts and trades), was often associated with ironsmithing (Smithy; e.g. the Kannengießer of Zürich from 1336). From the 15th century on, however, it tended to organize in its own corporations, for example, in Vienna (…
Date: 2020-10-06

Metal

(2,864 words)

Author(s): Reith, Reinhold
1. Concept and definitionThe importance of metals in the history of material culture is apparent from the very fact that several epochs of human history are distinguished according to the use of various metals. The Stone Age gave way to a “Metal Age,” which is in turn subdivided into the Copper Age (Chalcolithic), Bronze Age, and Iron Age. Periods or phases of marked prosperity are called Golden Ages, and the ancient poets Hesiod and Ovid already distinguished a “Golden” and a “Silver Age.” Metals …
Date: 2019-10-14

Journeymen

(2,194 words)

Author(s): Reith, Reinhold
1. TerminologyIn German-speaking Europe, in the Middle Ages a person continuing on after completing his apprenticeship in the crafts and trades was called a Knecht; the term  Geselle (from  Saalgenosse) was applied initially to members of  gesellig (“companionably”) communicative social groups, including the master craftsmen (Sociability). After the formation of the first associations of  Gesellen, the term was transferred to those active in the crafts and trades ( Eidgesellen); in its present sense of “journeyman,” it appears, for example, in Speyer in 1343: the  Ge…
Date: 2019-10-14

Environment

(6,622 words)

Author(s): Reith, Reinhold
1. ResearchSince the early 1980s there has been lively discussion about the environment, nature, the protection of both, and the historical relationship between these and humanity. Most studies in the field have based themselves on the environmental media of soil, water, and air. This new interest was a consequence of the incipient awareness about the environment in the 1970s, a decade that is now seen as a watershed in the history of environmental politics. The bleak prognosis that emerged from the Club of Rome, which announced an absolute limit to growth on the Earth [39], now broug…
Date: 2019-10-14
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