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 Stichistikoi logoi kata haireseōn

(572 words)

Author(s): Rigo, Antonio
Discourses in verse against heresies Theodoros ho Stouditēs (Stoudiotēs),Theodore the Stoudite, Theodore of Stoudios Date: c. 798/99-808 Original Language: Greek Description In a chapter of the Life of Theodore, Michael the Stoudite lists the works composed by the saint. Among these there appears one in which ‘he enumerated every heresy and rendered them anathema, in (…) pure trimeter verses’ ( PG 99, col. 264c). This work must be compared with On the heresies and the synods by Patriarch Germanus I (d. c. 733) and John of Damascus’ On heresies (q.v.). The latter text (or perhaps the Anakep…

 Nikēta Byzantinou philosophou programma tēs hypogegrammenēs anatropēs tēs para tou Arabos Mōamet plastographētheisēs biblou

(459 words)

Author(s): Rigo, Antonio
Nicetas of Byzantium’s foreword to the following refutation of the book forged by the Arab Muḥammad’ Nicetas Byzantios, Nicetas of Byzantium Date: c. 870 Original Language: Greek Description Nicetas’ refutation of the Qurʾān is subdivided into 30 chapters of unequal length. The first, which constitutes approximately one quarter of the entire work, is devoted to the exposition of the Christian faith. Chapters 2 to 17 each deal with a sūra from the Qurʾān (Q 2 – 18), from which several passages are quoted. Chapter 18 is enti…

Nicetas Byzantios, Nicetas of Byzantium

(595 words)

Author(s): Rigo, Antonio
Nicetas of Byzantium Date of Birth: Unknown, probably 1st half 9th c. Place of Birth: Unknown, perhaps Constantinople Date of Death: Unknown, probably late 9th c. Place of Death: Unknown Biography The only information on the life of Nicetas, who is remembered as philosophos, didaskalos and patrikios, can be gathered from his works and the manuscripts which contain them. A first piece of evidence is supplied by a note found in a group of manuscripts that contain the Twenty-four syllogistic chapters on the procession of the Holy Spirit (J. Hergenröther, Monumenta graeca ad Photium ejus…

Theodoros ho Stouditēs (Stoudiotēs),Theodore the Stoudite, Theodore of Stoudios

(370 words)

Author(s): Rigo, Antonio
Theodore the Stoudite Date of Birth: 759 Place of Birth: Constantinople Date of Death: 11 November 826 Place of Death: Island of Prinkipo Biography Theodore became a monk in 780 in the Sakkoudion monastery in Bithynia, and succeeded his uncle Plato as hegoumenos in 794. He opposed the Emperor Constantine VI because of his second marriage, and the Patriarchs Tarasius and Nicephorus I for their religious policies, which he thought conciliatory in the face of iconoclasm. In about 798 he moved to Constantinople, where he restored the Stoudi…

Second ritual of abjuration

(120 words)

Author(s): Rigo, Antonio
Unknown author Date of Birth: Unknown; possibly mid or late 10th century Place of Birth: Unknown; probably Asia Minor Date of Death: Unknown; probably mid-11th century Place of Death: Unknown; probably region of Sivas Biography Little is known about the author of this short ritual of abjuration. From the ritual itself it can be inferred that he was active in the region around Sivas in the early 11th century, was hostile to Christians who disagreed with his own Chalcedonian faith as well as to Muslims, and had more than a passing knowledge of Islam. Primary Sources of Information See below Sec…

 Panoplia dogmatikē

(551 words)

Author(s): Rigo, Antonio
Armour of doctrines Euthymius Zigabenus Date: About 1110 Original Language: Greek Description Following a prologue addressed to Emperor Alexius I, the Panoplia dogmatikē is divided into two parts (these do not agree with the division into two books given by the author): the first is devoted to the exposition of faith, while the second contains a refutation of various errors. Ch. 22, against the Iconoclasts, signals the change from past to present heresies, and Ch. 28, the last, is dedicated to Muslims; following chap…

 Euodiou monachou kephalaia tēs pseudōnymou graphēs tou dyssebous Mōamed kai penias

(308 words)

Author(s): Rigo, Antonio
Chapters from the forged book of the unbelieving Muḥammad and of destitution Euodius Date: Last quarter of 9th c. Original Language: Greek Description The Chapters by Euodius reproduce the 30 sections of the refutation of the Qurʾān by Nicetas of Byzantium (q.v.) in a concise and more manageable form. Euodius omits the philosophical-theological passages and the demonstration of the Christian faith in Nicetas’ original, retaining only Nicetas’ polemical arguments against the Muslims (which he also uses in the Martyrdom of the forty-two martyrs of Amorion). It must be underlined …

Euthymius Zigabenus

(138 words)

Author(s): Rigo, Antonio
Euthymios Zigabenos, Euthymios Zigadenos Date of Birth: Unknown; probably mid-10th Century. Place of Birth: Unknown Date of Death: Unknown; probably early 11th century Place of Death: Unknown Biography After the trial of Basil the Bogomil (c. 1099), Euthymius, monk and theologian in Constantinople, was charged by the Emperor Alexius I Comnenus to write a refutation of Bogomilism and other heresies. The work, which Euthymius completed with the help of a team of theologians, was published under the title Panoplia dogmatikē. Primary Sources of Information D.R. Reinsch and A. Kamby…

 Antirrhēsis kai anatropē tēs deuteras epistolēs tēs staleisēs para tōn Agarēnōn pros Michaēl basilea hyion Theophilou epi diabolē tēs tōn Christianōn pisteōs‘

(222 words)

Author(s): Rigo, Antonio
Confutation and refutation of the second letter sent by the Hagarenes to the Emperor Michael, son of Theophilus, in order to slander the Christian faith Nicetas Byzantios, Nicetas of Byzantium Date: c. 860 Original Language: Greek Description This second letter to the Hagarenes reiterates some of the points raised in the first and also introduces new arguments and critical points vis-à-vis Islam. Among other things, Nicetas attacks the Muslim claim that man is not created in the image of God, the ‘unnatural’ way of life sanctioned …

 Second ritual of abjuration

(325 words)

Author(s): Rigo, Antonio
Second ritual of abjuration Second ritual of abjuration Date: End of 10th century or beginning of 11th century Original Language: Greek Description A second formula of abjuration for converts from Islam to Christianity is preserved in a single 11th-century manuscript. Unlike the older formula (q.v.), it comprises 11 anathemas, of which only the first seven are directed against Muslims, while the rest are anti-monophysite, and specifically anti-Armenian. The first three anathemas are simple repetitions of the first three in the older…

 Ekthesis kataskeuastikē meta apodeixeōs tou Christianikou dogmatos ek koinōn ennoiōn kai dialektikēs methodou kai physikōn epicheirēmatōn kai syllogistikēs polytechnias proagomenē kai antirrhēsis tēs staleisēs epistolēs ek tōn Agarēnōn pros Michaēl basilea hyion Theophilou epi diabolē tēs tōn Christianōn pisteōs

(410 words)

Author(s): Rigo, Antonio
Positive exposition of Christian doctrine, developed from general concepts by means of dialectical method, rational arguments, and multiple syllogistic proofs, followed by a confutation of the letter sent by the Hagarenes to the Emperor Michael, son of Theophilus, in order to slander the Christian faith Nicetas Byzantios, Nicetas of Byzantium Date: About 860 Original Language: Greek Description In his reply to the letter sent to Constantinople by the ʿAbbasid court, Nicetas particularly refutes the points which deny the divinity of Christ and proclaim…

 Taxis ginomenē epi tois apo sarakēnōn epistrephousi pros tēn katharan kai alēthē hēmōn tōn christianōn

(1,072 words)

Author(s): Rigo, Antonio
Rite which came about for those from among the Saracens who converted to the pure and true faith of us Christians, Ritual of abjuration Unknown author Date: c. 880-90 Original Language: Greek Description In the Euchologion, the prayer book for the various rituals of the Byzantine Church, there is a rubric that contains a series of abjuration rituals for heretics, Jews and Muslims who convert to Christianity. The texts of these rituals contain a first section devoted to catechisms and liturgical procedures intended for the initiat…

Unknown author

(55 words)

Author(s): Rigo, Antonio
Ritual of abjuration Date of Birth: Unknown Place of Birth: Unknown Date of Death: Unknown Place of Death: Unknown Biography -- Primary Sources of Information -- Secondary Sources of Information -- Works on Christian-Muslim Relations Taxis ginomenē epi tois apo sarakēnōn epistrephousi pros tēn katharan kai alēthē hēmōn tōn christianōn Antonio Rigo