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(2,799 words)

Author(s): Robinson, Chase F.
Gain or acquisition by force of arms. In the Islamic context it is associated with the ‘opening’ of a land to the message and rule of Islam. The Qurʾān, revealed as it ¶ was before the Islamic conquests had begun, does not possess a clear concept of conquest, but the Arabic root f-t-ḥ produced during the first Islamic century the technical term for the Muslims' conquests over the Byzantine and Sasanian empires ( fatḥ/futūḥ) and is frequently translated as such in the Qurʾān. The Qurʾān has much to say about warfare (see war ). It is enjoined upon those able to do so ( q 48:17 exempts the blind, cr…


(1,252 words)

Author(s): Robinson, Chase F.
One who foretells the (negative) consequences of actions. The Arabic word nadhīr (pl. nudhur) appears no fewer than fifty-eight times in the Qurʾān, scarcely less frequently than the verb andhara (including nominal and adjectival forms, particularly mundhir) from which it derives, and nearly always in the sense of “warner” (cf. Lisān al-ʿArab, xiv, 100). As Watt puts it ( Muhammad at Mecca, 71), the verb “describes the action of informing a person of something of a dangerous, harmful, or fearful nature, so as to put him on his guard against it or put him in fear (q.v.) of it” (see also chastise…

al-Azdī, Abū Zakariyyāʾ

(1,461 words)

Author(s): Robinson, Chase F.
Abū Zakariyyāʾ Yazīd b. Muḥammad al-Azdī (d. 334/954–6), was a qāḍī (judge) of Mosul best known for his history of that city, Taʾrīkh al-Mawṣil. Virtually nothing is known about the course of his life, including his date of birth. An Azdī, he belonged to one of Mosul's two foremost tribes of the day (the other being the Hamdān), both of which had long histories and owned valuable properties in and around the city, which was an entrepôt of trade and a contested outpost of imperial power. It was presumably from a background of privilege and wealth that he came to study under the leading muḥaddiths a…
Date: 2019-11-11