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Music

(9,081 words)

Author(s): Rode-Breymann, Susanne
1. Concept and idea of musicThe connotations of the Greek musikḗ [téchnē] and the Latin [ars] musica went far beyond the idea of music as an art of making sound or organizing acoustic events. As Boëthius explained in De (institutione) musica (early 6th century CE; “On Music”), the music heard on earth ( musica instrumentalis) was an  imitatio of the  musica mundana (the universal “music of the celestial bodies” or “spheres”). According to the prevailing view in Greco-Roman antiquity and the Middle Ages, music was based, being a reflection of celestial order [1. 219], on number and …
Date: 2020-04-06

Musician, traveling

(810 words)

Author(s): Rode-Breymann, Susanne
1. Itinerant musicians In the Middle Ages, itinerant musicians – who worked mostly independently but sometimes in conditions of quasi-employment at courts or in towns – were key figures in European musical culture. They played for entertainment (Light music), dancing, in the countryside, in streets and squares, at fairs, in taverns (Tavern music), and at tournaments and other ceremonial court occasions. Their audiences came from various strata of society, and they mastered an accordingly broad (and…
Date: 2020-04-06

Florilegium

(1,545 words)

Author(s): Heß, Gilbert | Rode-Breymann, Susanne
1. Literature A florilegium is a compilation of images, maxims, or sayings, taken from the works of one or more authors or from musical works (see below, 2.) and arranged in the manner of a dictionary for rhetorical application. The term, derived from the Greek anthología (“flower gathering”) and dating only from the 16th century, evokes the process of “gathering flowers [of words]” (Latin  flores legere, literally “to collect blooms”), while the related term “(printed) commonplace-book” current in the English-speaking world focuses more strongly on the inte…
Date: 2019-10-14

Patron

(2,804 words)

Author(s): Erben, Dietrich | Schneider, Ute | Rode-Breymann, Susanne
1. Definition Patronage in scholarship, science, and the arts is the financial support and encouragement offered by individual patrons or institutions to practitioners. The quintessential patron in Greco-Roman antiquity was Gaius Cilnius Maecenas, the friend and advisor to the Emperor Augustus in the 1st century BCE who operated as patron of a circle of poets that included Horace. Maecenas’ name has entered many European languages (but not English) as a common noun with the sense of “patron” or “sponsor” (German  Mäzen; French  mécène; Czech  mecenáš), and in derivatives wit…
Date: 2020-10-06

Plagiarism

(1,545 words)

Author(s): Langer, Daniela | Rode-Breymann, Susanne | Kanz, Roland | Petri, Grischka
1. Concept and problemA work is considered plagiarism if it derives wholly or in part from the work of another author while deliberately concealing its source, permitting the definition of a “pretence of intellectual originality” [2. 1152]. Plagiarism is thus distinct from cryptomnesia (the unintended reproduction of something the author has forgotten having read) and the forms of parody and montage, in which disclosure of the source(s) is intended and crucial to reception. Whereas artistic forgery entails passing off one’s own w…
Date: 2020-10-06

Panegyric

(3,352 words)

Author(s): Disselkamp, Martin | Loef, Anna Katharina Maria | Rode-Breymann, Susanne
1. DefinitionThe term panegyric has two senses, which causes a degree of confusion. On the one hand, it refers to certain rhetorical and literary traditions of Greek and Roman antiquity and their later reception. On the other, it operates retrospectively as a general term for rhetorical and poetic texts, works of art, and musical compositions of encomiastic (honorific) character.Martin Disselkamp2. LiteratureIn ancient Greece, the  panegyrikós was primarily a festival, celebratory address that offered the speaker an opportunity to demonstrate all registers o…
Date: 2020-10-06

Dance

(3,821 words)

Author(s): Busch-Salmen, Gabriele | Walther, Gerrit | Rode-Breymann, Susanne
1. Introduction Dance - a sequence of stylized rhythmical steps and movements performed by individuals, couples, or groups - was one of the most widespread and popular forms of nonverbal communication and public representation in the early modern period. As an indispensable component of free time and festivals of all kinds, it formed part of the everyday world of almost all ranks and groupings, in both elite and popular culture (see also e.g. Kermis, fig. 1; Music, fig. 3). Many had their own danc…
Date: 2019-10-14

Festival

(8,958 words)

Author(s): Behringer, Wolfgang | Kranemann, Benedikt | Leppin, Volker | Petzolt, Martin | Rode-Breymann, Susanne | Et al.
1. General 1.1. OccasionsFestivals (from Latin  festus, “joyful, festive”) interrupt the routine of the everyday world, to which they contrast as a temporally and spatially limited “anti-structure” of which they are the structuring element [21]. In the early modern period, festivals marked the phases of natural, social, or individual chronologies, which could be either cyclic or linear. Cyclic chronologies included the annual agricultural cycle, the economic cycle, the church year with its recurring saint's days (Saint), and …
Date: 2019-10-14