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S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Ḥusayn

(1,149 words)

Author(s): Rouaud, A.
, a saint ( walī ) of Ethiopia, whose ḳubba , in the Bale or Bali region of Oromo province, is the goal of an important popular pilgrimage. There are various orthographies of his name: Scec Hussèn, Schech Ussen (Italian), S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Ḥusayn (Arabic), Shék Husén (Oromo, Amharic), Sheekh Xuseen (Somali), etc. ¶ S̲h̲. Nūr Ḥusayn is said to have lived ca. A.D. 1200. Coming from Merca, on the Somaliland coast, or possibly from Harar, he was reputedly the first great preacher of Islam in the region. He was a thaumaturge, who also had the gift of ubiquitousness.…

Yaḥyā b. Muḥammad

(1,031 words)

Author(s): Rouaud, A.
, al-Manṣūr al-Mutawakkil, of the Ḥamīd al-Dīn family, from the Ḳāsirm branch, Zaydī Imām and first ruler of the Mutawakkilī Kingdom of Yemen, b. ca . 1869, d. 1948. ¶ On the death in June 1904 of his father Muḥammad b. Yaḥyā Hamfd al-Dīn, who had in 1891 rebelled against the Ottomans, Yaḥyā obtained the bayʿa of most of the tribes and sayyid clans of Yemen and assumed the laḳab of al-Mutawakkil ʿalā ’llāh. Rejecting, like his predecessors, the authority…

Zaylaʿ

(1,038 words)

Author(s): Rouaud, A.
, a port on the Gulf of Aden [see ʿadan ] and on the African coast, situated in lat. 11° 21’ N., long. 43° 30’ E. (Ar. Zaylaʿ, Somali Seylac, Audal; Fr., Ital., Eng. Zeila, Zeyla, etc.). In the colonial period it came within British Somaliland (1884-1960), and then in the Republic of Somalia, inaugurated in July 1960 by the union of the former British Somaliland and the Italian colony of Somalia [see somali. 3. History]. T…

Oromo

(631 words)

Author(s): Rouaud, A.
, a people of eastern Africa, partly Islamised, present in Ethiopia but also, although in small numbers only, in Kenya, Somalia and even in the Sudan. Among its constituent groups are the Arssi (Arusi), Boran, Guji, Karayu, Leqa, Mâcha, Raya (Azebo), Tulama, Wello, etc. The Amharas, amongst whom they have become installed, have for a long time given them the name of “Galla”, whose etymology is uncertain. Numerically, the Oromo form one of the leading ethnic groups of Africa. In Ethiopia they represent 40% of the total population, i.e. betw…

Tad̲j̲urra

(1,693 words)

Author(s): Rouaud, A.
, in English conventionally Tadjura; in French, Tadjoura; in Ital…

S̲h̲ebelle

(646 words)

Author(s): Rouaud, A.
, a river of the south of Ethiopia and of Somalia, the S̲h̲abeelle or Webi S̲h̲abeelle, perhaps thus named because it was pointed out to the first travellers as the river (Som. webi ) [of the land of] leopards (Som. s̲h̲abeel , sc. Felis pardus nanopardus ), an animal which abounds in these regions. But the dwellers along the river simply call it “the river” (Som. webi-ga). The name of the Shebele, an ethnic group settled before the Somali, may have played a role. It is the longest stretch of water in the Horn of …

Ogādēn

(721 words)

Author(s): Rouaud, A.
, a vast arid expanse in the south-eastern part of Ethio…

Ogādēn

(674 words)

Author(s): Rouaud, A.
, vaste étendue aride du Sud-est de l’Ethiopie approximativement délimitée par le Wabi S̲h̲ebelle au Sud-ouest, la frontière de l’ancien Somaliland au Nord-est, la ligne Ferfer-Werder (chef-lieu)-Doomo au Sud-est et la ligne Degeh Bur-Degeh Medo au Nord-ouest. Parcourue par des nomades somali apparentés au groupe Dārōd, les Ogādēn, dont elle tire son nom, cette région a fait partie de la province du Harargé (Harar) jusqu’en 1991 date à laquelle un nouveau découpage administratif établi sur une b…

Zaylaʿ

(906 words)

Author(s): Rouaud, A.

Ras̲h̲āʾida

(449 words)

Author(s): Rouaud, A.

Tad̲j̲urra

(1,612 words)

Author(s): Rouaud, A.
, forme française Tadjoura, petit port boutrier sur le golfe du même nom en république de Djibouti et lieu de résidence du dardar («sultan») de Tadjoura, un des chefs coutumiers ʿafar. «Tadjoura» et «Tadjourah» sont des formes françaises du nom arabe de l’agglomération (Tadjurra; anglais: Tadjura; italien: Tagiura, etc.) qui est luimême une déformation du nom que lui donnent dans leur langue ses habitants: Tagorri. Ce dernier mot vient de tagor, plur. de tagra, (seau en cuir pour puiser l’eau). La ville est donc «tagor [ le ʿeela]

S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ Ḥusayn

(1,061 words)

Author(s): Rouaud, A.

Oromo

(598 words)

Author(s): Rouaud, A.
, population de l’Afrique orientale partiellement islamisée présente en Ethiopie mais aussi, quoiqu’en petit nombre, au Kenya, en Somalie et même au Soudan. Parmi les groupes qui la composent on trouve les Arssi (Arusi), les Boran, les Guji, les Karayu, les Leqa, les Macha, les Raya (Azebo), les Tulama, les Wello, etc. Les Amhara parmi lesquels ¶ ils sont installés les ont désignés longtemps du sobriquet de «Galla» à l’étymologie incertaine. Les Oromo constituent un des premiers ensembles ethniques d’Afrique par le nombre. En Ethiopie il représenterait 40% de la po…

Shebelle

(638 words)

Author(s): Rouaud, A.
, fleuve du Sud de l’Ethiopie et de la Somalie, le Shabeelle ou Webi Shabeelle a peut-être été nommé ainsi parce qu’il fut désigné aux premiers voyageurs européens comme le fleuve (som. webi) [du pays des] léopards (som. shabeel [ Felis pardus nanopardus]) animal abondant dans ces régions. Le nom des Shebele, ethnie pré-somali, peut avoir joué son rôle. Mais les riverains l’appellent tout simplement «le fleuve» (som. webi-ga). C’est le plus grand cours d’eau de la Corne de l’Afrique tant par sa longeur (2 488 km) que par son bassin (200 000 km2). Il prend sa source en Ethiopie aux confi…

Zār

(2,582 words)

Author(s): Rouaud, A. | Battain, Tiziana
, the name for a popular cult of spirits found in northeastern Africa and such adjacent regions as the Arabian peninsula. 1. In the Horn of Africa and the Arabian peninsula. The zār ritual or practice seems to have originated in the Horn of Africa and, especially, in Ethiopia. According to E. Cerulli, the word (Ar. zār, Amharic zar , Somali saar , etc.), may be said to derive from “the name of the supreme god of the pagan Cushitic peoples, the Sky-God called in Agaw (Bilen) …

S̲h̲ibām

(3,541 words)

Author(s): Robin. Ch | Rouaud, A.
, nom de trois bourgades, dont les premières attestations remontent à l’antiquité, et d’une montagne, toutes situées au Yémen. Pour les distinguer, les Yéménites leur accolent le nom d’une bourgade voisine ou celui de la région où elles se trouvent. Il en était déjà ainsi chez les géographes arabes classiques : voir al-Ḥasan al-Hamdānī (

Zār

(2,515 words)

Author(s): Rouaud, A. | Battain, Tiziana

S̲h̲ibām

(1,208 words)

Author(s): Rouaud, A. | Robin, Ch. | Ch. Robin and A. Rouaud
, the name of three fortified places, whose first mentions go back to Antiquity, and of a mountain, all in Southwest Arabia. They have been distinguished, from the times of Hamdānī and Yāḳūt onwards, by suffixing the name of a neighbouring settlement or the local region. 1. S̲h̲ibām Ḥaḍramawt, in lower Ḥaḍramawt, in the wadi of the same name, famed for its lofty houses in sun-dried brick, warranting its designation as a UNESCO site of world significance. In South Arabian inscriptions, it appears as S 2 bm from the end of the 3rd century A.D. and in the 4th century, the time of th…

Somali, the name of a people of the Horn of Africa, and Somalia, Somaliland

(16,127 words)

Author(s): Orwin, M. | Cerulli, E. | Freeman-Greenville, G.S.P. | Rouaud, A.
, the geographical region there which they substantially inhabit. The Somali people may be divided into two major socio-economic groups: nomadic pastoralists and sedentary agriculturalists; in addition to these are people who live and work in the towns. The sedentary agriculturalists live primarily along and between the two main rivers the Shabeelle and the Jubba whilst the nomadic pastoralists live in the surrounding areas, namely the northern, western and south-western regions. The pastoralists rear ca…
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