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Aḳ Ḥiṣārī

(628 words)

Author(s): Süssheim, K. | Schacht, J.
, nisba de personnages originaires d’un des endroits appelés Aḳ Ḥiṣār. Pour Aḳ Ḥiṣār d’Aydiʾn, il faut citer: a) Ilyās b. ʿĪsā, appelé couramment Ibn ʿĪsā b. ¶ Mad̲j̲d al-dīn, auteur d’un livre de prophéties en turc ( Kas̲h̲f-i rumūz-i kunūz) qui, rédigé en 965/1557-8 lors de l’apogée de la puissance des Ottomans, prédisait la perpétuation de leur empire jusqu’à la fin du monde et, à partir de la valeur numérique des lettres des noms propres, prédisait le destin de la nation jusqu’en 2035 H. (cf. Pertsch, Cat. Berlin, n° 45,9; Krafft, Cat. Vienna Acad., n° 301; Flügel, Cat. Vienna, n° 1502). …

Aya Sofya

(4,298 words)

Author(s): Süssheim, K. | Taeschner, F.
, la plus grande mosquée de Constantinople (Istanbul); elle fut un temps la première église métropolite du Christianisme oriental. Elle était désignée communément sous le nom de ἡ Mεγάλη ’Εκκλησία, jusqu’en 1453; on l’avait appelée Σοφία (sans l’article) vers 400 de J.-C., et depuis le Ve siècle ἡ ʿΑγία Σοφία. D’après les travaux les plus récents, la primitive Aya Sofya ne fut pas construite par Constantin, mais, conformément à ses dernières volontés, par son fils, Constance II, après sa victoire sur son beaufrère Licinius. Elle fut alors bâtie…

Aḥmad Iḥsān

(456 words)

Author(s): Süssheim, K. | Lewis, G.L.
(Ahmet İhsan Tokgöz), auteur et traducteur turc, naquit à Istanbul le 24 d̲h̲ū l-ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 1285/7 avril 1869. Sortant de l’école d’administration ( Mülkiyye) à 17 ans, il fut nommé interprète du commandant en chef de l’artillerie, mais bientôt abandonna ce poste, malgré l’opposition violente de sa famille, pour devenir journaliste. A dix-huit ans, il fonda une éphémère revue bimensuelle, ʿ Umrān, et commença en même temps sa carrière de traducteur en se mettant à traduire des romans français, parmi lesquels de nombreuses œuvres de Jules Verne et d’Alph…

Īlg̲h̲āzī

(1,621 words)

Author(s): Süssheim, K.
(c’est-à-dire champion du peuple) est le nom de deux dynastes sald̲j̲ūḳides locaux, de la dynastie des Artuḳides, et qui arrivèrent au pouvoir dans la Mésopotamie septentrionale. I. NaḎj̲m al-dīn Īlg̲h̲āzī Ier b. Artuḳ s’attacha d’abord à son beau-frère Tutus̲h̲, dans la lutte fertile en événements que celui-ci engagea pour la possession du trône de l’empire des Sald̲j̲ūḳides persans. Après la défaite et la mort de Tutus̲h̲ (488/1095), il se retira à Jérusalem, qu’il avait reçue en fief de Tutus̲h̲, conjointement avec son frèr…

Aḳ Ḥiṣār

(536 words)

Author(s): Süssheim, K. | Babinger, Fr.
(turc: «château blanc»), nom de plusieurs villes. I. La plus connue est Aḳ Ḥiṣār, en Anatolie occidentale; dépendant autrefois du wilāyet ¶ d’Aydiʾn et, depuis 1921, de celui de Manisa, elle est située dans une plaine, à proximité de la rive gauche du Gördük (un sous-affluent du Gediz), à une altitude de 115 m. Connue dans l’antiquité et à l’époque byzantine sous le nom de Thyatira (voir Pauly-Wissowa, s.v.), elle doit son nom turc à la forteresse bâtie sur une colline voisine. Annexée par les Ottomans en 784/1382, elle fut reperdue durant les désordres qui suiv…

Aḳ Ḥiṣārī

(654 words)

Author(s): Süssheim, K. | Schacht, J.
, nisba of several authors originating from one of the places called Aḳ Ḥisār. To Aḳ Ḥiṣār in Aydi̊n belong: (a) Ilyās b. ʿIsā, commonly called, ibn ʿīsā b. mad̲j̲d al-dīn , author of a Turkish book of prophecies ( Kas̲h̲f-i Rumūz-i Kunūz ) which, composed in 965/1557-8 when the Ottomans had reached the summit of their power, foretold the continuation of their empire until the end of the world and, from the numerical value of the letters of proper names, predicted the fate of the nation until the year 2035 A.H. (Cf. Pertsch, Cat . Berlin , No. 45, 9; Krafft, Cat. Vienna Acad ., No. 301; Flügel, Cat. Vie…

Aḳ Ḥiṣār

(568 words)

Author(s): Süssheim, K. | Babinger, Fr.
(T. "white castle"), name of several towns. 1. The best known is Aḳ Ḥiṣār in Western Anatolia, formerly in the wilāyet of Aydi̊n, since 1921 in that of Manisa, situated in a plain near the left bank of the river Gördük (a sub-tributary of the Gediz), 115 m. above sea level. Known as Thyatira (see Pauly-Wissowa, s.v.) in antiquity and Byzantine times, it owes its Turkish name to the fortress on a neighbouring hill. Annexed by the Ottomans in 784/1382, it was lost again during the disorders which followed Tīmūr’s invasion, and recaptured from the rebel Ḏj̲unavd [ q.v.] by Ḵh̲alīl Yak̲h̲s̲h̲ī B…

ʿĀlī

(1,156 words)

Author(s): Süssheim, K. | Mantran, R.
, muṣṭafā b. aḥmad b. ʿabd al-mawlā čelebi , one of the most outstanding representatives of Turkish literature of the 16th century. Born at Gallipoli in 948/1541, from the age of 10 he studied under Surūrī, great expert in Persian language and literature, and then under the Arab poet Muḥyi ’l-Dīn. In 965/1557 he presented to the heir-apparent Selīm his work entitled Mihr u-Māh , a step which determined his future career (see Dozy, Cat . cod . or. bibl . Acad . Lugd . Batavae , ii, 128). He became a member of the circle of his fellow-citizen Muṣṭafā, tutor to…

Aḥmad Iḥsān

(467 words)

Author(s): Süssheim, K. | Lewis, G.L.
( Ahmet ihsan tokgöz ), Turkish author and translator, was born in Erzurum on 24 Ḏh̲ū’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 1285/7 April 1869. Passing out from the school of administration ( Mülkiyye ) at the age of 17, he was appointed interpreter to the Commander-in-Chief of the artillery, but soon abandoned this post, despite strong family opposition, to become a journalist. At the age of 18 he founded a shortlived fortnightly, ʿUmrān , and at the same time embarked on his career as a translator of French novels, including many of the works of Jules Verne and A…

Aya Sofya

(4,297 words)

Author(s): Süssheim, K. | Taeschner, F.
, the largest mosque in Constantinople (Istanbul), and at one time the leading Metropolitan Church of Eastern Christendom. It was known, generally as ʿH Mεγάλη ’Εκκλησία up to 1453, having been called Σοφία (without the article) around 400 A.D., and since the 5th century, ʿH ‘Αγία Σοφία According to the most recent research, the original Aya Sofya was not built by Constantine the Great, but, in accordance with his last wishes, by his son, Constantius, after the latter’s victory over his brother-in-law Licinius. It was then built in the shape…

ʿĀlī

(1,668 words)

Author(s): Süssheim, K.
, properly called Muṣṭafā b. Aḥmed b. ʿAbd al-Mawlā Čelebī, was one of the most brilliant men-of-lecters of the 16th century in Turkey. He ¶ was bom in 948 (1541-1542), or in 949, at Gallipoli, and had the rare good fortune, when a boy of nine years old, to hear Surūrī, the greatest scholar in the Persian language and literature that the Ottoman nation ever produced. No other teachers of his are known except Muḥyi ’l-Dīn, the master of Arabian versification (who must not be confused with another Arabist of the same nam…

Āyā Ṣōfia

(4,237 words)

Author(s): Süssheim, K.
, the largest mosque in Constantinople and formerly the first Christian metropolitan church of the East, which before 1453 was usually called ‛Η Μεγάλη ’Εκκλησία, about 400 A. D. Σοφία without the article, and at the present day universally by the Greeks known by the name of ‛Η ‛Αγία Σοφία as, indeed, it was often called in Byzantine times. The importance of this monumental building in the history of art lies in the fact that it is a perfect specimen of the method of constructing a dome, which had formerly been in vogue in the plains of Mesopotamia and …

Aḥmed Ḏj̲ewdet Pas̲h̲a

(1,403 words)

Author(s): Süssheim, K.
, an eminent Turkish scholar and politician, was descended from a family known by the name of Halter-breakers, which, though originally from Ḳirḳ Ḳlīse, had been settled in Loveč (south of Plevna) since the beginning of the 18th century. One of his ancestors fought against Peter the Great by the river Pruth, another one was Muftī. His father and grandfather had made a pilgrimage to Mecca. He was born in 1238 (1822-1823), and acquired the rudiments of the Islamic sciences in his native home. But soon he was attracted towards the int…

Aḳ Ḥiṣār

(1,168 words)

Author(s): Süssheim, K.
(t. = White Castle). There are four places of this name: 1. The one best known is the town in the Anatolian province of Aidin, situated in a large plain near the left bank of the river Gördük. In Antiquity and in the Byzantine era it was called Thyateira; it owes its Turkish name to a fortress on a neighbouring hill. Three quarters of the 12 000 inhabitants are Moslems. With the exception of the six mosques, the churches, the Government school and the bazaar, all the buildings are of wood, making the place…

ʿAbd Allāh Ḏj̲ewdet

(5,826 words)

Author(s): Süssheim, K.
, Turkish poet, politician, translator of Shakespeare and ʿOmar Ḵh̲aiyām, free-thinker and prominent publicist. He belonged to the Kurdish family of the ʿOmar Og̲h̲ullari̊ whose home was in ʿArabgīr, and was born there on Sept. 9, 1869 (3rd Ḏj̲umādā II 1286 = Aug. 28, 1285 of the Turkish financial year). He was an only child. After a few years in Ḵh̲ōzāt and in ʿArabgīr, he moved with his father and his family to Maʿmūret al-ʿAzīz where he attended the Turkish military school and completed his studies there in 1885, so far as we know. He came to Con…

Aḥmed Iḥsān

(684 words)

Author(s): Süssheim, K.
, an Ottoman author, is one of the few standard-bearers of the present literary movement in Turkey. He is the son of a subordinate employé at the Finance-Department, and was born in Constantinople on the 24th of Ḏh̲u’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 1285 (7 April 1869). He was only seventeen when he passed his final examination at the school of administration. Shortly after his appointment as Interpreter to the Commander-in-Chief of the artillery, he was seized with an irresistible longing for an independent position and entered on a journalistic c…

Aḥmedī

(780 words)

Author(s): Süssheim, K.
, with his full name Tād̲j̲ al-Dīn Aḥmed b. Ibrāhīm al-Aḥmedī, was one of the most celebrated West-Turkish Ottoman poets of the 8th (14th) century. If we may believe Tas̲h̲köprü Zāde he was born before 735 (1334-1335) in Germiān, at that time an independent principality, but now part of the wilāyet of Brussa. According to Laṭīfī and the historian ʿAlī (from Gallipoli) however, he was born in Sīwās. He equalled his brother the poet Mawlānā ¶ Hamzawī in remarkable talents and ambition. After he had studied the sciences at home he went to Cairo, where he came into close c…

Arnauts

(11,702 words)

Author(s): Süssheim, K.
, an Indo-European people, known to us as Albanians, who occupy the territory which is under Ottoman dominion on the eastern shore of the Adriatic Sea from the 39. to the 43° N. Lat. The range, which is called in the ¶ South Pindos or Grammos, in the North S̲h̲ār, of the high central chain of mountains, is frequently denoted as the eastern boundary of their settlements; but those districts which are situated on the other side, viz. Monāstir, Kesrie (Kastoria), Perlepe (Prilip), Ḳālḳāndelen, Üsküb, Pris̲h̲tina, and even the territories …

Aḳ Deñiz

(630 words)

Author(s): Süssheim, K.
(= White Sea) is the Turkish appellation for the Mediterranean (in Persian as a rule Baḥr-i safīd or Daryā-i safīd). The name can certainly not be traced back to ancient Greek, in which it was simply called θάλασσα, nor to the idiom of the Byzantines, from whom the Turks might have borrowed it along with so many other words. For in spite of some modern Greeks, who adhere to the latter explanation, not a single passage can be quoted to support it. There is more reason to believe that the phrase ἡ ἄσπρη θάλασσα (ἡ Μ…

Ibrāhīm Ḥaḳḳī Pas̲h̲a

(903 words)

Author(s): Süssheim, K.
is the grandson of a Georgian who adopted Islām and the son of Meḥmed Remzī, who ac the time of his death was president of the Constantinople city council ( S̲h̲ehr Emāneti Med̲j̲lisi). Ibrāhīm Ḥaḳḳī Pas̲h̲a was born on the 22nd S̲h̲awwāl 1279 = 12th April 1863 in the Bes̲h̲ik-Ṭas̲h̲ quarter of Constantinople. From 1877 to 1882 he attended the school of administration ( Milkīye Mektebi) in Constantinople and took particular advantage of the lectures of Meḥmed Murād Bey (History), Pōrtuḳāl Mīḳāʿīl Efendi (Finance) and Oḥānnes Efendi (economics). Passing out of…
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