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Dīwān al-ʿArḍ

(2,991 words)

Author(s): Sadeq Sajjadi
Dīwān al-ʿarḍ (department of the army), a subdivision of the dīwān al-jaysh or dīwān al-jund (Pers. dīwān-i sipāh), which was concerned with the ʿarḍ (the mustering, parading, inspection) of soldiers for a range of administrative purposes such as grading, registration, identification and the related matters of pay and other disbursements. The convention of ʿarḍ can be traced back to Pre-Islamic Iran, then through the ʿAbbāsid period to the late-medieval dynasties o…
Date: 2018-09-19

ʿAbbāsa (a woman of the ʿAbbāsid court)

(1,238 words)

Author(s): Sadeq Sajjadi
ʿAbbāsa was a famous woman of the ʿAbbāsid court. She was a daughter of the caliph al-Mahdī and a sister of Hārūn al-Rashīd and al-Hādī. Nothing is known of ʿAbbāsa's life, as with most other women in medieval Muslim courts, and her fame stems from a story concerning her and Jaʿfar al-Barmakī—a story which purports to explain the murder of Jaʿfar and the overthrow of the Barmakids by Hārūn al-Rashīd. According to this story, which has been reported at length and in great detail by some sources, …
Date: 2017-04-21

Badr al-Jamālī

(2,102 words)

Author(s): Sadeq Sajjadi
Abū al-Najm Amīr al-Juyūsh (d. 487/1094), was the renowned commander of the armies ( amīr al-juyūsh) and vizier at the time of the Fāṭimid Imam-Caliph al-Mustanṣir. He was originally an Armenian serving the Syrian emir of Ṭarābulus, Jamāl al-Dawla Abū al-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. ʿAmmār, who brought him up from childhood and became his patron, whence his name al-Jamālī.Because of his military and political capabilities and skills, he rapidly rose th…
Date: 2018-09-24

ʿAbbās b. Abī al-Futūḥ

(1,545 words)

Author(s): Sadeq Sajjadi
ʿAbbās b. Abī al-Futūḥ, al-Afḍal Rukn al-Dīn of the Zīrids, a vizier of the Fāṭimids from 548 to 549/1153 to 1154. He was originally a prince of the family of Ibn Bādīs al-Ṣanhājī (of Banū Zīrī), who had been governors of Ifrīqiya in the 6th/12th century. As a result of conflicts within the family, his father Abū al-Futūḥ was expelled from Ifrīqiya in 509/1115 by his brother ʿAlī b. Yaḥyā, and he was forced to go with his wife Bullāra and his young son ʿAbbās to Alexandria, where they were warmly and respectfully rec…
Date: 2017-04-21

Dentistry

(7,771 words)

Author(s): Sadeq Sajjadi
Dentistry, the numerous references in the extant sources indicate that dentistry, like a number of other medical disciplines, enjoyed a long history in many of the regions which became part of the Islamic lands through the Muslim conquests, especially in Iran. In addition to passages in the Zend-Avesta that mention medicine and records of an ancient Iranian type of medical treatment called yamā (Elgood, A Medical, 287; Najm Ābādī, ‘Sayr’, 31, idem, Tārīkh, 829), this l…
Date: 2018-09-19

Fadak

(3,241 words)

Author(s): Sadeq Sajjadi
Fadak, the name of a village in the vicinity of Medina, at a distance of two days travel. Half of the agricultural land of Fadak was the personal property of the Prophet Muḥammad. It draws its later significance and fame from a dispute that erupted between two major groups of Muslims regarding its status after the Prophet’s demise. The crux of this disagreement was whether, when the Prophet passed away, the land of Fadak became the property of his daughter Fāṭima (q.v.), or the collective property of the Muslims to be administered by the caliph.The raids and military campaigns directed b…
Date: 2018-09-19

al-Fārābī

(32,582 words)

Author(s): Part I: Sadeq Sajjadi | Part II: Sayyad Javad Tabatabai
al-Fārābī, Abū Naṣr Muḥammad (d. Rajab 339/December 950–January 951), Muslim philosopher, one of the ‘founders’ of the falsafa tradition, sometimes referred to as ‘al-Muʿallim al-Thānī’ (lit. ‘The Second Teacher’, Aristotle being the First).  Part I: Life and Works BiographyScholars hold differing opinions about his father’s name and his ethnic background. The earliest source of information about al-Fārābī’s life and works is Ibn al-Nadīm (d. 385/995), who gives his name as Abū…
Date: 2018-09-24

Ābaskūn

(1,219 words)

Author(s): Ja‘far Shi‘ar | Sadeq Sajjadi
Ābaskūn or Ābuskūn, or Ābiskūn or Abaskūn, an island or an ancient port on the southeast of the Caspian Sea and northwest of Astarābād at the mouth of the Gurgān river, at 79° 45’ eastern longtitude and 37° 10' northern latitude, as calculated by the classical geographers (Abū al-Fidāʾ, 36; Wuthūq Zamānī, 29, quoting from Khwāja Naṣīr al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī). Despite this, its exact location i…
Date: 2017-04-21