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Naḍīr (Banū al-)

(1,026 words)

Author(s): Schöller, Marco
One of several Jewish clans of Medina (q.v.) in pre- and early Islamic times (see jews and judaism; tribes and clans; pre-islamic arabia and the qurʾān). In the Islamic tradition, they are usually considered part of the triad of important Medinan Jewish clans that also includes the Banū Qaynuqāʿ (see qaynuqāʿ ) and the Banū Qurayẓa, though often only the Naḍīr and the Qurayẓa (q.v.) are mentioned. The latter two were sometimes called al- kāhinān, “the two priest clans” and Arabic sources provide an Arabicized “Israelite” genealogy of the Naḍīr reaching back to Aaron (q.v.; Hārūn). The actu…

Qurayẓa (Banū al-)

(1,110 words)

Author(s): Schöller, Marco
One of the Jewish tribes of Medina and traditionally part of the triad that also includes the Banū Qaynuqāʿ (q.v.) and the Banū l- Naḍīr (see naḍīr [banū al-] ). Although the origin of the Qurayẓa, like that of the other Medinan Jews, and their coming to Medina (q.v.) are not known with certainty, the sources provide some information concerning their role in pre-Islamic times. Thus, members of the Qurayẓa allegedly persuaded the Yemenite ruler Asʿad Abū Qarib not to attack Medina and caused him to convert to Judaism (see jews and judaism; yemen; pre-islamic arabia and the qurʾān; sou…

Opposition to Muḥammad

(2,691 words)

Author(s): Schöller, Marco
Resistance to the political and religious authority (q.v.) of Muḥammad. The Qurʾān is very much a document that shows the struggle of a new faith (q.v.) coming into existence, and the career of Muḥammad is very much the story of a man who eventually defeated all odds when shaping the first community of believers (see community and society in the qurʾān ). Additionally, the qurʾānic concept of prophecy (see prophets and prophethood ) is profoundly marked by the experience of opposition (see q 25:31; 40:5). The fact of being opposed both theologically and politically (see politics and the q…

Medina

(2,885 words)

Author(s): Schöller, Marco
One of the primary settlements of the Ḥijāz in Muḥammad's time, to which he emigrated (see emigration ) from Mecca (q.v.), and where he died. The town of Medina is mentioned in the Qurʾān only in passing (see below). If based solely on the qurʾānic data, therefore, any entry concerning Medina would be unduly short because our knowledge of pre- and early Islamic Medina derives almost entirely from other, and usually much later, source material. On the other hand, Medina is the setting for much of the qurʾānic message, and t…

Post-Enlightenment Academic Study of the Qurʾān

(13,494 words)

Author(s): Schöller, Marco
The modern study of the Qurʾān, meaning thereby “the critical dispassionate (i.e. non-polemical) search for knowledge, unconstrained by ecclesiastical institutional priorities” (Rippin, Qurʾan. Style and contents, xi n. 2), insofar as it is a living tradition of learning and the basis of all contemporary research, cannot be assessed in its entirety in a single entry. Rather, the present entry can merely aim at specifying the major trends of research and the overall development of modern scholarship. The selective biblio…

Qaynuqāʿ (Banū)

(1,097 words)

Author(s): Schöller, Marco
One of the Jewish tribes of Medina (q.v.), generally considered part of the triad that also includes the Banū l-Naḍīr (see naḍīr [banū al-] ) and the Banū Qurayẓa (q.v.). A so-called “market of the Banū Qaynuqāʿ” in Medina was known in pre-Islamic times, and various sources state that the Qaynuqāʿ were famous as goldsmiths but — in contrast to the other Jewish tribes — they possessed no arable land. Their quarter, al-Quff, close to the center of Medina, housed a Jewish assembly-place (see jews and judaism; pre-islamic arabia and the qurʾān; south arabia, religion in pre-islamic). The most …