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(707 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne
A white, translucent substance distilled from the wood of the camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora,family Lauraceae) which is indigenous to China, Taiwan and Japan. The term camphor (kāfūr, qāfūr, qaf[f]ūr) denotes the tree, its resin and its drug. ¶ South and southeast Asian designations of these botanical products include Indian karpūra, kappūra or Malayan kapur. It is attested once in the Qurʾān at q 76:5. Besides the qurʾānic kāfūr there are references to the spelling with qāf instead of kāf in works of qurʾānic commentary (Ālūsī, Rūḥ, xxix, 154; Qurṭubī, Jāmiʿ, xix, 124; for furth…


(957 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne
Henna (ḥinnāʾ) denotes the shrub Lawsonia inermis L. (Lythraceae) and the reddish dye obtained from it that is mentioned in the Prophetic ḥadīth as a dye for the body and hair, and as a remedy. It is widely cultivated and used from Morocco to Indonesia for aesthetic, ritual, magical, and medicinal reasons. The plant is widespread in Arabia, Africa, and Asia (map in Aubaile-Sallenave, Voyages, 130), and has also been introduced to the New World tropics. The Arabic word ḥinnāʾ has entered Persian (ḥinā), Turkish (kına), and Turkic languages, while in the Indian subcontinent deriva…
Date: 2019-11-11


(108 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne
[English version] (< Schia/ Šı̄a, wörtl. “Partei”, elliptisch für “Partei des Ali”). Bezeichnung der Anhänger Alis im Streit um das Kalifat (Kalif). Je nach Anerkennung einer Anzahl von Imamen unterscheidet man Fünfer- (z. B. Zaiditen im Jemen), Siebener- (so z. B. Ismailiten in Pakistan und Zentralasien; Fatimiden 909-1171 in Nordafrika und Ägypten, Fatima) und Zwölfer-Sch. (Gruppierung mit den meisten Anhängern, heute z. B. Iran, Afghanistan, Irak, Libanon). Das Märtyrertum, d. h. das Sterben für…


(157 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne
[English version] ( taṣawwuf). Islamische Mystik entwickelte sich schon in der Anfangszeit des Islam aus dem Streben nach asketischer Lebensweise und Weltverzicht, z. T. unter dem Einfluß des christl. Mönchtums, aber auch der neuplatonischen Philos. (Neuplatonismus) und iranischer Elemente. Nach den Vorstellungen des S. führen Gottesfurcht und Gottvertrauen mit Hilfe von Meditation und Gottesgedenken (inhaltlich und technisch normierte Rezitationen rel. Formeln und Litaneien) in eine höhere Stufe z…


(85 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne
[English version] ( ahl as-sunna). Islamische Orthodoxie, die neben dem Koran v. a. auf der sunna (d. h. den exemplarischen Worten und Taten) des Propheten Mohammed basiert. Von den Schiiten unterscheiden sich die S., die den größten Teil der Muslime stellen (mehr als vier Fünftel), auch in der Auslegung des Koran, der vergleichsweise geringen Bed. des Märtyrertums sowie in Bereichen des Rechtssystems. Auch innerhalb der S. selbst kam es zur Ausbildung verschiedener Rechtsschulen (Islam). Islam; Kalam Schönig, Hanne Bibliography G. H. A. Juynboll, D. W. Brown, s. v. Sunna,…


(93 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne
[English version] (Uṯmān ben Affān; Οὐθμάν; pers.-türk. Osman). Dritter der vier “rechtgeleiteten” Kalifen (644-655 n. Chr.). Nach der glanzvollen Herrschaft seines Vorgängers Omar, dessen (Expansions-) Politik er fortführte, erntete U. eher Vorwürfe und Unzufriedenheit, u. a. wegen Nepotismus. Auch seine Zusammenstellung der göttlichen Offenbarungen zu ihrer endgültigen kanonischen Rezension (Koran), ein Schachzug zur Stärkung der Zentralgewalt, wurde in der Durchführung heftig kritisiert. Unge…


(106 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale)
[German version] ( Umar b. al-Ḫaṭṭāb). Second of the four 'rightly-guided' caliphs (AD 634-644). O. established the foundation of the Islamic empire and its political institutions through expansion as well as domestic organization. His negative and reserved attitude toward Jews and Christians was reflected in a number of religious-law and political decisions. The Sunnites revere O. even today as an ideal Muslim and just ruler, while the Shiites despise him as an advocate of Abu Bakr and hence an ene…

Harun al-Rashid

(90 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale)
[German version] ( Hārūn ar-Rašı̄d). Fifth Abbasid ( Abbasids)  Caliph (AD 786-809). Popular because of the narratives from the ‘Arabian Nights’. His term of office was characterized by political unrest in the Arab lands from North Africa to Yemen, by difficulties in consolidating  Islam in the eastern parts of his realm, as well as by wars against Byzantium. His main achievement in the cultural area is the promotion of translations into Arabic of Greek natural scientific and philosophical literature. Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale) Bibliography F. Omar, s.v. Hārūn al-Rashı̄d, E…


(97 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale)
[German version] (Uṯmān ibn Affān; Οὐθμάν/ Outhmán; Persian-Turkish Osman). Third of the four 'rightly-guided' caliphs (AD 644-655). After the glittering rule of his predecessor Omar, whose (expansionist) policies he continued, U. instead received reproach and dissatisfaction, e.g. owing to nepotism. His compilation of divine revelations into a final canonical edition (Qur'ān), a move towards strengthening central authority, was also heavily criticized in its implementation. Unexplained happenings a…


(118 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale)
[German version] (< Shia/ Šı̄a, literally 'party', elliptical for 'Party of Ali'). Term for the supporters of Ali in the struggle for the caliphate (Caliph). According to the number of imams (Imam) they recognise, Fiver (e.g. Zaidites in Yemen), Sevener (e.g. Ismailites in Pakistan and central Asia; Fatimids 909-1171 in northern Africa and Egypt, Fatima) and Twelver Shiites (group with the largest number of adherents, today in e.g. Iran, Afghanistan, Iraq, Lebanon) are distinguished. Martyrdom, i.e…


(58 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale)
[German version] (al-Manṣūr). Abū Ǧafar al-Manṣūr, second Abbasid caliph (AD 754-775). Actual founder of the dynasty, founder of Baghdad (763). Consolidated the realm by suppressing uprisings and making improvements in administration, transportation, communications, economy and commerce. He designated his son al-Mahdī as his successor despite objections.  Abbasids Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale) Bibliography H. Kennedy, Manṣūr, in: EI 6, 427a-428b.


(117 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale)
[German version] (Latin Bisseni, Greek Πατζινάκαι/ Patzinákai). Turkic-speaking group of tribes, first mentioned in AD 834, to the north of the Caspian Sea. After the collapse of the kingdom of the Chazars in 969 they were driven by the Oghuz Turks across the Volga into the Pontic steppes and in 971 they were defeated by the Byzantines and the Kievan Rus. The B. fled from the Rus to Bulgaria in 1036 and fought bitter battles (including in alliance with the Oghuz) with Byzantium (in 1091 and 1122) and …


(92 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale)
[German version] ( Muāwiya, Greek Μαυΐας/ Mauïas). Founder of the dynasty of Umayyads, Caliph AD 661-680. From 634 onwards, the caliphs Abu Bakr and later Omar had already entrusted M. with various capacities as commander and governor in Syria. During his rule he consolidated this firm position internally, maintaining and incorporating the tribal structure. In foreign policy he built on earlier advances, particularly against North Africa and Byzantium, and achieved further military successes. Testimonials: Theophanes, p. 346-348, 355f. de Boor. Ali Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saa…


(143 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale)
[German version] (Abbāsids). Islamic dynasty (AD 750-1258). The accession of the A. occurred after a weakening of the  Omayyads by disputes over succession, tribal conflicts, social alienation and Iranian influences, which were expressed in a new orientation towards the East. In 763 the capital relocated from Damascus to Baghdad. Intellectual life profited from the multinational constellation. Scientific, cultural and literary flowering characterized by Hellenistic and Iranian influences under ca…


(476 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale)
[German version] ( Muḥammad, Greek Μουάμεδ/ Mouámed, Μωάμετ/ Mōámet). Founder of Islam (born about AD 570 in Mecca, died AD 632 in Medina). Muslims believe that M. was the recipient of divine revelations (Qur'an) brought by the angel Gabriel [1] and the ‘seal of the prophets’. A belief in M. as God's messenger is an integral part of the Islamic faith. M. was influenced by a tribal society that was undergoing social restructuring, with certain monotheistic ideas and currents beginning to appear in its polytheistic religion (Monotheism). In 610, when he was…

Abu Bakr

(81 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale)
[German version] (Abū Bakr). First of the four righteous caliphs (AD 632-34), i. e. the first successor of  Muhammad. As one of the latter's first followers and close advisor, A. became caliph after his death though not without opposition ( Ali). After subduing the apostasy movement he is credited with the initial consolidation of the young Islamic community and laid the foundation for its rapid initial expansion.   Caliph Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale) Bibliography W. M. Watt, Abū Bakr, in: EI2 I, 109b-111a.


(107 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale)
[German version] ( Makka; Μακόραβα; Makóraba, Ptol. 6,7,32). The most important of the holy cities of Islam only accessible to Muslims, located in modern Saudi Arabia. Mecca is the place where the prophet Muhammad was born and worked until he emigrated ( Hejira) to Medina ( Yaṯrib). It is the direction of prayer and the destination of pilgrimage ( Kaaba). Mecca was already an important centre of trade in the pre-Islamic period. The first Koranic revelations ( Qur'an) are primarily a critique of the materialism and lack of faith of Meccan merchants. Macoraba Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale) Bib…


(381 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale)
( Banū Umayya). [German version] A. The dynasty AD 661-750 First Islamic dynasty (AD 661-750), with its capital at Damascus. Under the Umayyads, the Islamic expansion reached Central Asia in the east and the Pyrenees in the west. The Byzantines were driven out of North Africa, but kept resisting the Arabs in Asia Minor. This - ethnically and religiously heterogeneous - extensive empire required a new internal organization and administration, modelled on Byzantine and Persian-Sassanid institutions. Its hey…


(137 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale)
[German version] (Arab. imām, in general ‘conductor, leader’). 1. conductor of prayer, i.e. prayer-leader in the mosque, 2. leader of the community of all Muslims in succession to the prophet  Mohammed (Muḥammad), i.e. religious and political head. The schools of law and lines of belief evidently have different views about qualifications, investiture and offices/duties of the imam. Among the  Sunnites: defender of faith, (religious) law and justice. The imam following on from the four  Caliphs, who…


(1,038 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale)
( islām). [German version] I. Definition Islam, ‘complete, unreserved submission, devotion to God’, agent noun muslim; both terms are Koranic. The most recent of the three monotheistic world religions, with today more than a billion adherents. Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale) II. History [German version] A. Origin In the predominantly nomadic society of 7th cent. Arabia, a number of gods and goddesses, most of them tribal and local deities, were worshipped. A tendency towards  monotheism (Allāh = ‘ the God’) developed, in the transition to a settled way of life during the l…
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