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(75 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
, the 22nd letter of the usual Arabic alphabet (numeral value 20; cf. the article abd̲j̲ad). The pronunciation of kāf as an unvoiced palatal explosive, found as early as Sībawaihi, has survived in modern academic speech. In the present day popular speech we find some variants (in addition to k) notably the affricate č (< c′ < k′). Cf. the article arabia, arabic dialects, i. 396b; and Schaade, Sībawaihi’s Lautlehre, Index. (A. Schaade)

Ḏh̲u ’l-Rumma

(974 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
, an Arab poet of the tribe of Banū ʿAdī. His proper name was G̲h̲ailān b. Uḳba b. Masʿūd (or Buhais̲h̲). His mother was called Ẓabya and belonged to the Banū Asad. He was a contemporary of Ḏj̲arīr and Farazdaḳ and in the feud between these two poets took the side of al-Farazdaḳ but without in any way distinguishing himself. He also wrote satires on the tribe of Imruʾ al-Ḳais, who found a champion in the poet His̲h̲ām. As the latter could only write rad̲j̲az verses, with which he could not hold his own against the more elaborate metres of Ḏh̲u ’l-Rumma, al-Farazdaḳ had to come …

Abū ʿAṭāʾ

(221 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
Aflaḥ (or Marzūḳ) b. Yasār al-Sindī, an Arabian poet. He owes his surname al-Sindī to the fact that his father came from Sind; he himself was born in Kūfa and lived there as a client of the Banū Asad. He fought for the decaying Umaiyad dynasty with pen and sword, praising them and casting scorn on their adversaries. It is true, however, that when the ʿAbbāsides obtained the power, he lowered himself so far as to endeavor by singing the praise of the new rulers to wheedle himself into their favor. But…


(46 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
, the eighth letter of the usual Arabic Alphabet, and fourth of the Abd̲j̲ad (whence its numerical value = 4). It is pronounced at the present day as in Old Arabic as a voiced dental explosive. Cf. A. Schaade, Sībawaihi’s Lautlehre, Index. (A. Schaade) ¶

Abū ʿAṭāʾ al-Sindī

(221 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
, Aflaḥ (or Marzūḳ ) b. Yasār , Arabic poet. He owes his surname of al-Sindī to the fact that his father came from Sind; he himself was born in Kūfa and lived there as a client of the Banū Asad. He fought for the declining Umayyad dynasty with pen and sword, praising them and casting scorn on their adversaries. It is true, however, that when the ʿAbbāsids obtained power, he tried to insinuate himself into the favour of the new rulers by singing their praises. But the ¶ iron character of al-Saffāḥ was but little sensible to such fawning, and under the reign of his successor, al-Manṣ…


(449 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
(a.), originally: “he who stands upright”, then (with bi, ʿalā , li or the genitive alone), he who takes something upon himself, takes care of something or someone and hence also has authority over them. Thus we find the pre-Islamic poet al-Ḳuṭāmī ( Dīwān , ed. Barth, Leiden 1902, no. 26) already speaking of a “ ḳayyim of water”, i.e. apparently the man in charge of it, the supervisor, and the poet Bāʿit̲h̲ b. Ṣuraym ( Ḥamāsa of Abū Tammām, ed. Freytag, 269, verse 2) speaks of the ḳayyim of a woman, i.e. he who provides for her, her husband. The first mentioned meaning, (supervisor etc…


(88 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
, the second letter of the Arabic alphabet (apart from Ḵh̲alīl’s arrangement of it; cf. the article abd̲j̲ad), as a numeral = 2. Graphically it is known as al-Bāʾ al-muwaḥḥada. Phonetically Sībawaihī defined it sufficiently according to our ideas as a-voiced, bilabial, explosive sound (ed. Derenbourg ii. 453, x6, ,8, 454, 7), our b. al-Bāʾ is also the name of the Arabic preposition bi (to, in, on; through [instrumental!]). For further information see grammars and dictionaries. [Cf. besides the Artt. Arabia: script and dialects], (A. Schaade)


(99 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
, the nineteenth letter of the Arabic alphabet (numerical value 1000; cf. the article abd̲j̲ad); the character g̲h̲ain is a variant of ʿain. In most modern dialects it is pronounced as a voiced velar aspirate. The old Arab writers on phonetics describe it as a guttural; but it seems very doubtful if it ever really was pronounced as a post-uvular. G̲h̲ain has become ʿain in many modem dialects (for details see the article arabia, arabic dialects, i. p. 396b). Cf. A. Schaade, Sībawaihi’ss Lautlchre, particularly p. 19, N°. 3 and note 48; and the index. (A. Schaade)


(1,127 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
, an Arabic metre. The name, according to the Arab view, which however is based on etymological considerations only, is said to mean either “haste” or “woven” (Freytag, Darstellung der arab. Verskunst, p. 136). The Arabs derived this metre like the rad̲j̲az [q. v.] from the hazad̲j̲ [q. v.] and gave it the eighth place in their series of classical metres. The constituent element in the ramal is the Ionic . We sometimes also have . This variant is however very rare (Freytag, Darstellung, p. 240 sq. and Nöldeke, Delectus, p. 236). Nevertheless its possibility combined with the frequen…


(156 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
, the fifteenth letter of the ordinary Arabic alphabet (as a numeral = 800; cf. the article abd̲j̲ad). Ḍād is in form a variant of Ṣād (see the article arabia, arabic writing, p. 383b). In Sībawaihi’s time, Ḍād seems to have been pronounced as a voiced velar spirant, in which the air found an exit on both sides of the back of the tongue while the tip of the tongue lay close to the gum of the upper incisors. There was also a partial variety the so-called “weak Ḍād”. In modern dialects Ḍād is either a voiced velar alveolar explos…


(103 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
(a.), properly “building” or “structure”, hence comes in grammar to mean “form” (e. g. Sībawaihi, ed. Derenbourg, i. 2, 2 infra) and particularly the indeclinability of the (vowel or consonantal) termination (the opposite is Iʿrāb). It must however be noted that words like ʿaṣan “stick” according to the Arab view have a virtually declinable ending and are therefore not regarded as mabnī. The Bināʾ moreover appears in all three classes of words (nouns, verbs and particles). (A. Schaade) Bibliography Sībawaihi (ed. Derenbourg), i. 2, 1—2, 18—3, 12 Itm Yaʿīs̲h̲, p. 400—405 and elsewhere Ib…


(55 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
(properly “the new”), a metre, which was unknown to the Arabs and was first invented by the Persians (whence the name). It had originally the form fāʿilātun fāʿilātun mustafʿilun (twice). An abbreviated form faʿilātun faʿilātun mafāʿilun (twice) is also found. (A. Schaade) Bibliography Muḥammad Aʿlā, Dictionary of Technical Terms (ed. Sprenger etc.), i. 193.


(236 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
(a.; ep. Hebr. aiyal) is an antlered mammal, described by Damīrī (Cairo 1274-1275 i. 165—167) as follows: Its horns are massive, and begin to grow when it has passed its second year. During the third year they shoot into branches, and this ramification continues until they form a tree-like antler. This is afterwards thrown off every year, but always grows again. The number of the “nodes” (antlers) corresponds with the number of the animal’s years. The aiyil is a good leaper; when chased it precipit…


(166 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
(a.), properly “clarity, purity”, abstract noun from faṣīḥ, clear, pure. In Arabic rhetoric faṣīḥ means: 1. a single word, when it is not difficult to pronounce, is not a foreign or rare word and its form is not an exception to the usual; 2. a whole sentence, when it does not contain an objectionable construction, a discord, an obscurity (through a confusion in the arrangement of the words) or a metaphor too far fetched and therefore incomprehensible. The first kind of faṣāḥa is called faṣāḥat al-mufrad, the latter faṣāḥat al-kalām. There is also a faṣāḥat al-mutakallim. This is peculiar …


(461 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
(a.; „young gazelle)”, a common woman’s name, two bearers of which are specially famous, ʿAzzat Kut̲h̲aiyir and ʿAzza al-Mailāʾ. ʿAzzat Kut̲h̲aiyir whose real name was ʿAzza bint Ḥumaid b. Waḳḳās ( Ag̲h̲ānī;Ḵh̲izāna: bint Ḥumail b. Ḥafṣ) and was a Bedouin of the tribe of Ḍamra. She was called ʿAzzat Kut̲h̲aiyir, the ʿAzza of Kut̲h̲aiyir because this poet dedicated all his Ḳaṣīdas to her (which for his part brought him the title of Kut̲h̲aiyir ʿAzza). She must have been quite a child when Kut̲h̲aiyir fell in love with her. Lat…

ʿAbd Allāh

(433 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
b. Ubaiy, also called Ibn Salūl after his mother, chief of the Ḵh̲azrad̲j̲ites. Before the coming of Muḥammed to Medina ʿAbd Allāh had dominion over Aws and Ḵh̲azrad̲j̲ — the only case, says Ibn His̲h̲ām explicitly, in which these two tribes united under a common chief. — After the coming of Muḥammed ʿAbd Allāh was obliged to follow the example of the masses and embrace Islām, in order not to be entirely set aside; but in his heart he bore a bitter grudge against his rival, whom he now looked on as a…


(235 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
(a.), Strictly Ace. constr. of the substantive Bainun interval, then a preposition meaning “between”. — Baina baina ist an adverbial expression, which means “of middle quality, of middle worth”; al-Harnza ’llatī baina baina is “a sound between Hamza and the semi-vowel (i. e. Alif) which corresponds to the vowel following the Hamza” ( Lisān, xvi. 214). According to our method of expression this means: when Hamza is between two vowels, the glottal stop is omitted in certain dialects — among the Ḳorais̲h̲ and particularly among most of the Ḥid̲j̲āz (…

ʿAbd Allāh

(414 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
b. Rawāḥa, a Ḵh̲azrad̲j̲ite, belonging to the most esteemed clan of the Banu ’l-Ḥārit̲h̲. At the second ʿAḳaba assembly in March 622, ʿAbd Allāh was one of the 12 trustworthy men, whom the already converted Medinians conformably to the Prophet’s wish had chosen. When Muḥammed had emigrated to ¶ Medina, ʿAbd Allāh proved himself to be one of the most energetic and upright champions of his cause. Muḥammed appears to have thought a great deal of him, and often entrusted him with honorable missions. After the battle of Bedr in the year 623, in wh…


(358 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
(a.), technical term of Arabic grammar of the Baṣra school = genitive (Kūfic Ḵh̲afḍ). Ḏj̲arr (properly the infinitive of d̲j̲arra, to pull, to draw) is still used by Sībawaihi as a synonym for kasr (a) and denotes the vowel i in the last syllable of a word when it serves to express the genitive. How d̲j̲arr came to have this meaning is not quite obvious (cf. the articles ḥaraka and iʿrāb). It is for example explained that the later grammarians no longer understood the phonetic meaning of the expression and came to use d̲j̲arr as well as its Kufic equivalent k̲h̲afḍ as the regular words for “ge…


(1,800 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
(the “lump of dough”: Ag̲h̲ānī, xix. 2), whose real name was Hammām b. G̲h̲ālib b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa, was one of the three greatest Arab satirists of the Arab period [cf. d̲j̲arīr and al-ak̲h̲ṭal]. He belonged to the Tamīmi Mud̲j̲ās̲h̲iʿ b. Dārim. He was probably born about the year 20 (640-641) (cf. Naḳāʾid, ed. Bevan, p. xviii.). We know nothing certain about his early life. It may, however, be true that his father sent him to ʿAlī after the Battle of the Camel” ( Ag̲h̲ānī, xix. 6, 48), although tradition gives this incident an exaggerated importance in the life of the poet (cf. Naḳāʾiḍ, op. cit., in o…
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