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ʿAdī b. Ḥātim

(307 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Saʿd al-Ṭāʾī , Abū Ṭarīf , Companion of the Prophet, and subsequently a follower of ʿAlī. Son of the celebrated poet Ḥātim al-Ṭāʾī [ q.v.], and, like him, a Christian, he had inherited the command of his tribe from his father, but when threatened with the loss of it he became converted to Islam, in 9 or 10/630-1, and collected the taxes of Ṭayyiʾ and Asad. After the death of the Prophet he remained faithful to Islam, and prevented his tribe from apostatizing during the ridda . Later on he took part in the conquest of ʿIrāḳ, and received from ʿUt…

ʿAbd Allāh b. Rawāḥa

(433 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
, a Ḵh̲azrad̲j̲ite, belonging to the most esteemed clan of the Banu ’l-Ḥārit̲h̲. At the second ʿAḳaba assembly in March 622, ʿAbd Allāh was one of the 12 trustworthy men, whom the already converted Medinians, conformably to the Prophet’s wish, had chosen. When Muḥammad had emigrated to Medīna, ʿAbd Allāh proved himself to be one of the most energetic and upright champions of his cause. Muḥammad appears to have thought a great deal of him, and often entrusted him with honorable missions. After th…

Ḳayyim

(331 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
(a.), à l’origine, «qui se tient debout», ensuite avec bi-, ʿalā, li- ou simplement le génitif, «qui se charge, qui prend soin de quelque chose ou de quelqu’un» et, de là, «qui a droit de commandement sur». Ainsi le poète préislamique al-Ḳuṭāmī ( Dīwān, éd. Barth, Leyde 1902, n° 26) parle d’un « ḳayyim de l’eau», c’est-à-dire évidemment du préposé, de l’administrateur, et le poète Bāʿit̲h̲ b. Ṣuraym ( Ḥamāsa d’Abū Tammām, éd. Freytag, 269, vers 2) du ḳayyim d’une femme, c’est-à-dire de celui qui prend soin d’elle, son époux. Le premier sens (administrateur, etc.) se renco…

Abū ʿAṭāʾ al-Sindī

(225 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
, Aflaḥ (ou Marzūḳ) b. Yasār, poète arabe. II doit son surnom d’al-Sindī au fait que son père venait du Sind. Il naquit luimême à Kūfa et y vécut comme client des Banū Asad. Il lutta pour la dynastie umayyade à son déclin par la plume et l’épée, la couvrant de louanges et tournant en ridicule ses adversaires. Il est vrai, cependant, que lorsque les ʿAbbāsides arrivèrent au ¶ pouvoir, il essaya d’obtenir la faveur des nouveaux gouverneurs en chantant leur louange. Mais le caractère inflexible d’al-Saffāḥ n’était que peu sensible à de telles flatteries, et, sous l…

ʿAbd Allāh b. Rawāḥa

(454 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
, k̲h̲azrad̲j̲ite, appartenait à la célèbre branche des Banū l-Ḥārit̲h̲. En mars 622, il fut, à la 2e assemblée de ʿAḳaba, l’un des douze hommes de confiance que, selon le désir du Prophète, les croyants de Médine avaient élus. Lorsque Muḥammad eut émigré à Médine, ʿAbd Allāh se montra l’un des plus énergiques et des plus braves champions de sa cause. Muḥammad semble avoir fait grand cas de ʿAbd Allāh; il lui confia des missions de grande importance. Après la victoire des Musulmans à Badr, en 623, ʿAbd Allāh cou…

Ḳaiṣar

(686 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
(a.), the usual name in Arabic for the Byzantine Emperor. The word, of course, represents the Greek Καĩσαρ and came to the Arabs through the intermediary of the Aramaic (cf. Fraenkel, Die Aramäischcn Fremdwörter im Arabischen, Leiden 1886, p. 278 sq.). The borrowing must have taken place at quite an early period as the word in Syriac later appears almost always in the form Ḳesar (cf. Payne Smith, Thesaurus Syriacus, s. v.). The Arabs, centuries before Muḥammad, had relations with the Byzantines (cf. A. Müller, Der Islam im Morgen-u. Abendland, i. 10 and the article g̲h̲assānids). Among th…

Bayān

(27 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
(a.), Lucidity, explanation. ʿIlm al-Bayān is often used synonymously with ʿIlm al-Balāg̲h̲a [see balāg̲h̲a] although strictly it only denotes a subsection of it. (A. Schaade)

Ḏj̲āmid

(125 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
(a.). A technical term in Arabic grammar. Ḏj̲āmid, literally “congealed” thence “inorganic” is applied to nouns as well as verbs. By an ism d̲j̲āmid we understand a noun, which “is neither derived ( mus̲h̲taḳḳ) from an abstract verbal noun ( maṣdar) nor is actually one”, i. e. “a concrete verbal substantive” (Fleischer, Kleinere Schriften, i. 167, iii. 540 et seq.). Examples: rad̲j̲ul, a man, baṭṭa, a duck (Wright, Arabic Grammar, 3rd ed., i. 106). Arab grammarians are not all agreed as to the position of the infinitive ( maṣdar) in this respect; cf. Fleischer, op. cit., i. 167 and Muḥamm…

Ṣād

(237 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
, the fourteenth letter of the usual Arabic alphabet (numerical value: 90; cf. the article abd̲j̲ad). How the now usual form of Ṣād developed out of the Nabataean (still closely resembling the primitive Semitic form) form of the letter may be seen from plate I of the article arabia., arabic writing). As to its pronunciation, Ṣād was even in ancient times and still is an unvoiced, velarised (and according to Meinhof “stopped”) alveolar spirant, in which a groove is formed on the front part of the tongue. All these elements (except perhaps the la…

Kāf

(75 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
, the 22nd letter of the usual Arabic alphabet (numeral value 20; cf. the article abd̲j̲ad). The pronunciation of kāf as an unvoiced palatal explosive, found as early as Sībawaihi, has survived in modern academic speech. In the present day popular speech we find some variants (in addition to k) notably the affricate č (< c′ < k′). Cf. the article arabia, arabic dialects, i. 396b; and Schaade, Sībawaihi’s Lautlehre, Index. (A. Schaade)

Ḏh̲u ’l-Rumma

(974 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
, an Arab poet of the tribe of Banū ʿAdī. His proper name was G̲h̲ailān b. Uḳba b. Masʿūd (or Buhais̲h̲). His mother was called Ẓabya and belonged to the Banū Asad. He was a contemporary of Ḏj̲arīr and Farazdaḳ and in the feud between these two poets took the side of al-Farazdaḳ but without in any way distinguishing himself. He also wrote satires on the tribe of Imruʾ al-Ḳais, who found a champion in the poet His̲h̲ām. As the latter could only write rad̲j̲az verses, with which he could not hold his own against the more elaborate metres of Ḏh̲u ’l-Rumma, al-Farazdaḳ had to come …

Abū ʿAṭāʾ

(221 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
Aflaḥ (or Marzūḳ) b. Yasār al-Sindī, an Arabian poet. He owes his surname al-Sindī to the fact that his father came from Sind; he himself was born in Kūfa and lived there as a client of the Banū Asad. He fought for the decaying Umaiyad dynasty with pen and sword, praising them and casting scorn on their adversaries. It is true, however, that when the ʿAbbāsides obtained the power, he lowered himself so far as to endeavor by singing the praise of the new rulers to wheedle himself into their favor. But…

Dāl

(46 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
, the eighth letter of the usual Arabic Alphabet, and fourth of the Abd̲j̲ad (whence its numerical value = 4). It is pronounced at the present day as in Old Arabic as a voiced dental explosive. Cf. A. Schaade, Sībawaihi’s Lautlehre, Index. (A. Schaade) ¶

Abū ʿAṭāʾ al-Sindī

(221 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
, Aflaḥ (or Marzūḳ ) b. Yasār , Arabic poet. He owes his surname of al-Sindī to the fact that his father came from Sind; he himself was born in Kūfa and lived there as a client of the Banū Asad. He fought for the declining Umayyad dynasty with pen and sword, praising them and casting scorn on their adversaries. It is true, however, that when the ʿAbbāsids obtained power, he tried to insinuate himself into the favour of the new rulers by singing their praises. But the ¶ iron character of al-Saffāḥ was but little sensible to such fawning, and under the reign of his successor, al-Manṣ…

Ḳayyim

(449 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
(a.), originally: “he who stands upright”, then (with bi, ʿalā , li or the genitive alone), he who takes something upon himself, takes care of something or someone and hence also has authority over them. Thus we find the pre-Islamic poet al-Ḳuṭāmī ( Dīwān , ed. Barth, Leiden 1902, no. 26) already speaking of a “ ḳayyim of water”, i.e. apparently the man in charge of it, the supervisor, and the poet Bāʿit̲h̲ b. Ṣuraym ( Ḥamāsa of Abū Tammām, ed. Freytag, 269, verse 2) speaks of the ḳayyim of a woman, i.e. he who provides for her, her husband. The first mentioned meaning, (supervisor etc…

Rad̲j̲az

(3,661 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
, an Arabic metre. The name is said by the Arabs (see e.g. L.A., vii. 218 middle and Freytag, Darstellung der arabischen Verskunst, p. 135) to mean “trembling” and to have been given to the metre because it can be shortened to two double feet and thus become like a rad̲j̲zāʾ i. e. a she-camel which trembles with weakness when rising up. Other Arab explanations connect the word with rid̲j̲āza “counterpoise” (al-Suhailī on Ibn His̲h̲ām, ed. Wüstenfeld, i. 171, 10: ibid., ii. 58 below). Nöldeke’s suggestion ( W.Z.K.M., x., 1896, p. 342) that rad̲j̲az means something like rumbling (na…

al-Ḳaiyūm

(239 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
(a.), one of the “beautiful names” of Allāh (see i. 303), according to some theologians the greatest name of Allāh (see Tād̲j̲ al-ʿArūs, ix. 36, 7 from below — ult. The word is of Jewish origin and means like its prototype, the Hebrew or the Aramaic (cf. Hirschfeld, New Researches into the Composition and Exegesis of the Qoran, London 1902, p. 69, 12 and note 89; Brünnow-Fischer, Arabische Chrestomathie, Berlin 1913, glossary under ḳwm) “the eternal”. Muḥammad, who uses it three times in the Ḳorʾān (ii. 256; iii. 1 and xx. 110) may have picked it up from the Jews of …

Bāʾ

(88 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
, the second letter of the Arabic alphabet (apart from Ḵh̲alīl’s arrangement of it; cf. the article abd̲j̲ad), as a numeral = 2. Graphically it is known as al-Bāʾ al-muwaḥḥada. Phonetically Sībawaihī defined it sufficiently according to our ideas as a-voiced, bilabial, explosive sound (ed. Derenbourg ii. 453, x6, ,8, 454, 7), our b. al-Bāʾ is also the name of the Arabic preposition bi (to, in, on; through [instrumental!]). For further information see grammars and dictionaries. [Cf. besides the Artt. Arabia: script and dialects], (A. Schaade)

G̲h̲ain

(99 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
, the nineteenth letter of the Arabic alphabet (numerical value 1000; cf. the article abd̲j̲ad); the character g̲h̲ain is a variant of ʿain. In most modern dialects it is pronounced as a voiced velar aspirate. The old Arab writers on phonetics describe it as a guttural; but it seems very doubtful if it ever really was pronounced as a post-uvular. G̲h̲ain has become ʿain in many modem dialects (for details see the article arabia, arabic dialects, i. p. 396b). Cf. A. Schaade, Sībawaihi’ss Lautlchre, particularly p. 19, N°. 3 and note 48; and the index. (A. Schaade)

Ramal

(1,127 words)

Author(s): Schaade, A.
, an Arabic metre. The name, according to the Arab view, which however is based on etymological considerations only, is said to mean either “haste” or “woven” (Freytag, Darstellung der arab. Verskunst, p. 136). The Arabs derived this metre like the rad̲j̲az [q. v.] from the hazad̲j̲ [q. v.] and gave it the eighth place in their series of classical metres. The constituent element in the ramal is the Ionic . We sometimes also have . This variant is however very rare (Freytag, Darstellung, p. 240 sq. and Nöldeke, Delectus, p. 236). Nevertheless its possibility combined with the frequen…
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