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Conciliarism

(738 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
“Conciliarism” is the theory that general councils represent the supreme church court, specifically, that they are superior to the pope. Its roots lie in the discussions of medieval canonists (Canon Law), ¶ especially concerning papal immunity and responsibility. The heresy clause in the Decretum Gratiani (ca. 1140) states the principle that the pope can be judged by no one as long as he does not deviate from the faith (40.6). An extension of the concept of heresy included simony and persistence in schism. In the 12th century this line of thought led to a broad discussion of …

Separatism

(1,154 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
1. Political Separatism is a breakaway movement either politically or ecclesiastically. In French séparatisme also denotes the separation of church and state. Politically, separatism involves the efforts to detach a state or a federation of states and either to make them independent or to incorporate them into a neighboring state. Germany after World War I saw a movement between 1919 and 1924 for a free Rhenish state. The term “separatism” replaced older ones such as Sonderbündelei (“special clustering,” after Sonderbund, “special federation,” used in the 19th century by R…

Reform Councils

(1,721 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
1. Term and Prior History The term “reform councils” in the broad sense refers to all councils that dealt with the matter of reform in the church and that made reforming decisions. In the narrow sense it refers to the 15th-century councils of Pisa, Constance, Pavia-Siena, and Basel, which viewed it as their chief aim to reform the church “in head and members.” All through the Middle Ages church reform had been linked to councils and synods. Already in the Merovingian age reforming synods had sought to restore the law of God and the church’s order. In the 11…

Antimodernist Oath

(150 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
In 1910 Pope Pius X (1903–14) required all Roman Catholic priests to take the Antimodernist Oath (Motu proprio Sacrorum antistitum) in rejection of the errors of modernism. It also had to be taken before taking higher order (Consecration) or institution to office. Non-Catholics viewed its introduction as evidence of Roman Catholic backwardness and intolerance. In the long run, the oath could not suppress the problems raised by modernism. In 1967 a new Professio fidei became obligatory, replacing the oath with a general confession of the church’s teaching. Hans SchneiderBibliography…

Councils of the Church

(4,143 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
1. Term “Council,” as well as the originally synonymous “synod” (from Lat. concilium and Gk. synodos, both meaning “assembly”), refers to gatherings of church representatives for the purpose of discussing matters of faith and order, reaching decisions, and issuing decrees. The Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church use the term “council” mainly for gatherings of bishops. Modern usage, which distinguishes national and provincial synods from ¶ general councils, developed at a later date, with its beginnings in the Middle Ages. The Orthodox Church recognizes only the s…

Gallicanism

(429 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
Since the debate about papal infallibility in the 19th century, the term “Gallicanism” has been used for the theological doctrines and political practice of the state church in France (Church and State). In the late Middle Ages national and ecclesiastical interests (Conciliarism), joining forces in opposition to the universal claims of the papacy and curial centralism, had secured a wide measure of autonomy for the French church. Les libertés de l’Église gallicane (The freedoms of the Gallican church; 1594), compiled by P. Pithou, and the Preuves (Evidences; 1639) of P. Dupuy gai…

Bibelgesellschaft

(755 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
1. Anfänge B. (engl. Bible Societies) als Organisationen zur Verbreitung der Bibel sind erst im 18./19. Jh. entstanden. Doch die Aufgabe der Bibelverbreitung in der Volkssprache resultiert schon aus dem reformatorischen Verständnis der Bibel als einziger Autorität in christl. Glaubensfragen und des Priestertums aller Getauften, das allein auf die Bibel angewiesen ist ( Reformation). Mit der durch den Buchdruck ermöglichten Verbreitung von Luthers Bibelübersetzung, die in außerdt. protest. Ländern zu gleichen Unternehmungen anregte, begann die Entwicklung…

Soziale Bewegungen, religiöse

(3,539 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
1. Definition Religiöse S. B. sind kollektive Akteure mit relig. Motiven und Zielen, die einen partiellen oder umfassenden Wandel der Verhältnisse in der Religion (eventuell auch in der Gesellschaft) herbeiführen wollen (vgl. Religiöse Reformbewegungen) oder versuchen, bestehende Zustände zu verteidigen und Veränderungen zu verhindern oder rückgängig zu machen (Widerstands-Bewegungen). Schneider, Hans 2. Geschichte der Begriffe 2.1. Allgemein Abgeleitet von der B. im physikalischen Sinn (zeitliche Ortsveränderung eines Beobachtungsobjekts) wird der Be…

Huguenots

(659 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
The name “Huguenots” for French Protestants at home and abroad derives from the transferring of a local story from Tours concerning Hugh Capet (d. 996) to the Protestants who met by night. It does not derive etymologically from Iguenots (= Eidgenossen, “confederates,” i.e., part of the Swiss Confederation) but is a diminutive of Hugo. It was used by others from about 1555 and adopted by the Protestants, especially emigrants, as a term for themselves after 1685. The rise of the party name marks the transition from the Protestant movement to a church that, under the inf…

Jansenismus

(2,188 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
1. Allgemein Der J., benannt nach Cornelius Jansen d. J. (1585–1638), war die bedeutendste innerkath. Oppositions- und Reformbewegung des 17./18. Jh.s ( Religiöse Reformbewegungen). Er war v. a. in Frankreich und den Niederlanden verbreitet, fand aber auch in Spanien, Portugal, Italien und Österreich Anhänger. Der J. zielte ursprünglich auf eine Reform der Theologie und Frömmigkeit unter Rückgriff auf den Kirchenvater Augustinus, doch entstanden in den einzelnen Ausbreitungsgebieten und Entwicklungsphasen verschiedene Ausprägungen. Infolge der päpst…

Böhmisten

(827 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
Die Anhänger der Lehren des schlesischen Theosophen und Mystikers Jakob Böhme wurden schon in der polemischen Literatur (Polemik) des 17. Jh.s »B.« genannt. Die B. formierten sich weder zu einer religiösen Sondergemeinschaft noch bildeten sie eine klar abgrenzbare philosophische Schule aus. Mit Gedanken Böhmes verschmolzen von Anfang an andere Traditionen, so dass der »Böhmismus« ein schillerndes Phänomen darstellt. Böhme wirkte zum einen durch seine Theosophie. In den Umbrüchen der Frühen Nz. schien manchen Zeitgenossen wie auch späteren Lesern, dene…

Philadelphier

(164 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[English Version] Philadelphier, eine Richtung im myst. Spiritualismus des 17./18.Jh. 1670/1694 gründete die Visionärin J. Lead(e) in London mit anderen engl. Anhängern J. Böhmes die »philadelphische Sozietät«. Die sieben Sendschreiben der Apk auf ebensoviele Perioden der Kirchengesch. deutend meinten sie, jetzt beginne die Zeit von »Philadelphia« (Apk 3,7ff.) mit der Sammlung der wahren Kinder Gottes zur endzeitlichen Gemeinde. Zu den Religionsparteien (Konfessionen) und deren Lehren (bloßen »Mei…

Quietismus

(1,427 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[English Version] I. Begriff Der Begriff Q. (vgl. lat. quies, »Ruhe, Stille, Schweigen«) ist eine urspr. polemische Bez. für eine Richtung der Mystik im Katholizismus des 17./18.Jh., deren Spiritualität auf die »Seelenruhe« als höchstes Ziel ausgerichtet war. Bei den Auseinandersetzungen in Italien um sein Hauptmerkmal, die »orazione di quiete« (»Gebet der Ruhe«), sind nach 1680 zunächst der Name »Quietisten« für deren Verfechter, dann, wohl im Zusammenhang der lehramtlichen Verurteilung 1687, die Abstraktbildung »Q.« entstanden. II. Geschichte Der Q., der in der 2. H…

Pisa, Konzil von

(150 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[English Version] (1409). Nach dem Scheitern verschiedener Versuche, das abendländische Schisma (Papsttum: II.) beizulegen, kündigten die meisten Kardinäle beider rivalisierenden Päpste (Gregor XII. [1406–1415] in Rom, Benedikt  XIII. [1394–1417/1423] in Avignon) diesen den Gehorsam auf und beriefen gemeinsam ein Konzil nach P. Es verurteilte beide Päpste (ohne über deren Rechtmäßigkeit zu entscheiden) wegen halsstarrigen Verhaltens und setzte sie ab. Doch da sich diese nicht unterwarfen und weite…

Bible Society

(818 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
1. Beginnings Bible Societies, organizations for the dissemination of the Bible, first came into being in the 18th/19th century. However, the task of Bible distribution in the vernacular is a natural consequence of the Reformation understanding of the Bible as sole authority in matters of Christian faith and the priesthood of all baptized people, which is dependent only on the Bible (Reformation). The printing-facilitated dissemination of Luther’s Bible translation, which stimulated similar undert…
Date: 2019-03-20

Jansenism

(1,845 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
1. General observationsJansenism, named after Cornelius Jansen (1585-1638), was the most important opposition and reform movement within the Catholic Church of the 17th and 18th centuries (Religious reform movements). It was especially prevalent in France and the Netherlands but also found support in Spain, Portugal, Italy, and Austria.Jansenism was originally aimed at reforming theology and piety based on the work of the Church Father St. Augustine, but it took various forms in its different areas of influence and phases of development. A…
Date: 2019-03-20

Behmenism

(714 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
Adherents to the teachings of the Silesian theosophist and mystic Jakob Böhme were already called “Behmenists” ( Böhmisten) in the polemical literature (Polemic, theological) of the 17th century. The Behmenists neither formed a special religious community of their own nor did they constitute a clearly definable philosophical school. From the very beginning, Böhme’s ideas merged with other traditions so that “Behmenism” represents a shifting phenomenon.Böhme’s impact came first through his theosophy. In the turmoil of the early modern period, many contemporar…
Date: 2019-03-20

Giessen, University of

(627 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] The University of Giessen is one of the post-Reformation/confessional institutions. As a reaction to the introduction of the Reformed confession in the Hessian University of Marburg (Marburg, University of), Count Ludwig V of ¶ Hessen-Darmstadt established a Lutheran Paedagogium in Giessen in 1605 which was elevated to university status in 1607 by imperial privilege (Ludwigs-Universität, Ludoviciana). Owing to claims of traditional and legal succession, it was moved in 1624/1625 to occupied Marburg during the Thirty Years War and reop…

Arndt, Johann

(477 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] (Dec 27, 1555, Ballenstedt or Edderitz, Anhalt – May 11, 1621, Celle). From 1575 to 1581 (?), this pastor's son studied in Helmstedt, Wittenberg (?), and in Basel and Strasbourg (without earning an academic degree) artes liberalis and medicine (influenced by Paracelsism, Paracelsus), but he did not complete a regular theological curriculum; after his ordination in 1583, he began pastoring in Anhalt …

Verschoor, Jakob

(259 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Hans
[German Version] (1648, Vlissingen – 1700, Middelburg), Dutch Reformed separatist. Already during his study of theology at Leiden, F. Spanheim the Younger was suspicious of his student’s views. In 1673, without passing his examinations, he began to organize “exercises” (conventicles) in Vlissingen, which he later continued in other towns. Since his views aroused distrust and he was even suspected of being an adherent of B. Spinoza, his attempts to find a church appointment were unsuccessful. Versc…
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