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ʿAdī b. Zayd

(522 words)

Author(s): Seidensticker, Tilman
ʿAdī b. Zayd al-ʿIbādī (d. c.600 C.E.) was an Arab Christian poet of al-Ḥīra (southeast of present-day Najaf, in Iraq) who flourished during the second half of the sixth century C.E. He spent his life partly at the Sāsānid court at Ctesiphon (al-Madāʾin), where he was secretary for Arab affairs, and partly at the Lakhmid court at al-Ḥīra, where he was a courtier and a counsellor to al-Nuʿmān III (r. 580–602 C.E.), whom he had helped to seize the throne. The intrigues of the poet's enemies eventually prompted al-Nuʿmān to imprison and then execute him. In the ʿAbbāsid period, Ibn Sallām al…
Date: 2020-06-10

Aḍdād

(820 words)

Author(s): Seidensticker, Tilman
Aḍdād (sing. ḍidd) in classical Arabic philology and lexicography are homonyms of a special type, namely, words with two contrasting or even opposite meanings; mawlā, for instance, can mean both “client” and “patron.” Although such ambiguous terms do not play a significantly greater role in Arabic texts than in most other literatures, the existence of a special genre of lexicographical works devoted to them seems to imply otherwise. These works, entitled in most cases K. al-aḍdād, were composed as early as the last decades of the second/eighth century. An early specime…
Date: 2020-06-10

Aʿshā Hamdān

(284 words)

Author(s): Seidensticker, Tilman
Aʿshā Hamdān, properly ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (b. ʿAbdallāh) b. al-Ḥārith, was an Arab poet, born in Kufa, stemming from the south Arabian tribe Jusham (Hamdān). In the factional struggles of early the Umayyad period, he sided against the ruling dynasty, as a rithāʾ poem on the Tawwābūn killed at ʿAyn al-Warda in 65/685 (ed. Abū Yāsīn, no. 34) and one on Muṣʿab b. al-Zubayr (no. 6) show. Later, he was involuntarily sent on a military expedition into Mukrān (cf. no. 23, verses 38 and 47). When Ibn al-Ashʿath rebelled against the governor, al-Ḥa…
Date: 2020-06-10

Ibn al-Dumayna

(443 words)

Author(s): Seidensticker, Tilman
Ibn al-Dumayna, Abū l-Sarī ʿAbdallāh b. ʿUbaydallāh (d. c.180/796), was an Arab poet of early ʿAbbāsid times who spent his life in southern Ḥijāz and became especially famous for committing what today would be called an honour crime. He was named after his mother, al-Dumayna bt. Ḥudhayfa, and stemmed from the Khathʿam tribe, part of which continues to reside in southern Ḥijāz today. Al-Salūl, a relative of al-Dumayna’s tribe, is said to have begun an adulterous relationship with Ibn al-Dumayna’s …
Date: 2020-06-10

Abān al-Lāḥiqī

(477 words)

Author(s): Seidensticker, Tilman
Abān b. ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd al-Lāḥiqī al-Raqāshī (d. c.200/815) was an Arab poet of the early ʿAbbāsid period. His ancestors are said to have been Jews from Fasā in the province of Fārs. He was born in Basra and later emigrated to Baghdad, where he managed to attach himself to the Barmakids, who made him the official arbiter of poets at their court. As such, he incurred the enmity of other poets: Abū Nuwās wrote a lampoon against Abān in which he accused him of heretical views, obviously without foundation. Both his brother ʿAbdallāh and his son Ḥamdān were also poets. In addition to lampoons of his…
Date: 2020-06-10

Abū ʿAṭāʾ al-Sindī

(235 words)

Author(s): Seidensticker, Tilman
Abū ʿAṭāʾ al-Sindī, Aflaḥ (or Marzūq) b. Yasār (d. probably between 136/754 and 158/775) was one of the mukhaḍramū al-dawlatayn poets (i.e., those who lived in the late Umayyad and early ʿAbbāsid periods). His father came from India (al-Sind), and he himself grew up as a mawlā in Kufa. He was a partisan of the Umayyad dynasty and composed an elegy on Naṣr b. Sayyār (d. 131/748), the last Umayyad governor of Khurāsān (no. 15, ed. Rāḍī Mahdī). An attempt to curry favour with the ʿAbbāsids (no. 17) failed, and, in response, he composed hijāʾ poems against them (nos. 18, 27). He reportedly d…
Date: 2020-06-10

al-Afwah al-Awdī

(244 words)

Author(s): Seidensticker, Tilman
Al-Afwah al-Awdī, Ṣalāʾa b. ʿAmr (first half sixth century C.E.), was an Arab poet of the pre-Islamic period. He was the chieftain of his tribe, the Banū Awd. A small dīwān, extant only in a single copy, has been enriched, in the two editions of his poetry, by various fragments from other Arabic sources. Most of the poems are devoted to the warlike virtues of his tribe and its chief. Al-Afwah is counted among the first poets who composed qaṣīdas, but no clear specimen of this genre has been transmitted; in fact, only two poems have a rhyme in the first half-verse. Of interest for the history of rithāʾ…
Date: 2020-06-10

al-Azharī, Abū Manṣūr

(360 words)

Author(s): Seidensticker, Tilman
Abū Manṣūr Muḥammad b. Aḥmad al-Azharī (282–370/895–980) was an Arab lexicographer. Born in Herat, he was a pupil there of his compatriot al-Mundhirī (d. 329/941; on him, see GAS 8:194–5). As a young man, he went to Baghdad, where he met the famous grammarian al-Zajjāj (d. 311/923). In 312/924, when he was returning from Mecca, the Qarāmiṭa, led by Abū Ṭāhir al-Jannābī, attacked the pilgrimage caravan. While many of the travellers were massacred, al-Azharī was taken prisoner and lived as a captive for approximately two yea…
Date: 2020-06-10

Ḥamdān b. Abān al-Lāḥiqī

(410 words)

Author(s): Seidensticker, Tilman
Ḥamdān b. Abān al-Lāḥiqī (d. c.235/849) was a minor Arabic poet of the early ʿAbbāsid period. The date of his death can only be guessed from the fact that he was a son of the poet Abān al-Lāḥiqī (d. c.200/815), particularly well-known for his muzdawijas (poems composed of rhyming couplets), and a contemporary of the Basran poet ʿAbd al-Ṣamad b. al-Muʿadhdhal (d. c.240/854). He seems to have spent part of his life in Basra. According to al-Nadīm (d. 385/995?), his poems once filled fifty folios. Just a small portion of Ḥamdān’s oeuvre has been preserved and can be found in the Akhbār al-shuʿarāʾ…
Date: 2020-06-10

al-Akhṭal

(649 words)

Author(s): Seidensticker, Tilman
Al-Akhṭal (c. 20–92/c. 640–710) was one of the most illustrious poets of the Umayyad period. His name was Abū Mālik Ghiyāth b. Ghawth, but he was known by the nickname “al-Akhṭal,” which means “the loose-lipped,” that is, “eloquent” or “big mouth.” He was born of Christian parents either in al-Ḥīra or in al-Ruṣāfa. He was able to adhere to the Monophysite faith of his father’s tribe, the Banū Taghlib, notwithstanding his close relations with the Umayyad court. This circumstance reflects the spec…
Date: 2020-06-10

Ibn Maymūn

(573 words)

Author(s): Seidensticker, Tilman
Abū Ghālib Muḥammad b. al-Mubārak Ibn Maymūn (d. 597/1201) was the author of a voluminous anthology of Arabic poetry from pre-Islamic until the end of Umayyad times (c. sixth century CE to 132/750). Almost everything known about Ibn Maymūn has been gathered from his monumental Muntahā l-ṭalab min ashʿār al-ʿArab (“The utmost/end in the search of Arab poetry”), with the exception of the exact dates of his death and birth, which are given by al-Ṣafadī (d. 764/1362; al-Wāfī bi-l-wafayāt, ed. Sven Dedering, Wiesbaden 1974, 4:382). He was born in 523/1129 and appears to have s…
Date: 2020-06-10

Poesie

(9,205 words)

Author(s): Seybold, Klaus | Bekkum, Wout J. van | Brucker, Ralph | Rösler, Wolfgang | Pollmann, Karla | Et al.
[English Version] I. Bibel und antikes Judentum 1.Altes Testament a) AllgemeinP. (griech. ποι´ησις/poi´ēsis) bez. in den bibl. Wiss., im Unterschied zur Prosa, i. allg. Texte in vers-, rhythmus- und klanggebundener Sprache, deren Struktur und Stil von sprachlichen (Klangformen; Reime; Satzfolgen u.a.) wie auch außersprachlichen Faktoren (Musik; Umfang; Gleichbau; Szenerie u.a. Modifikationen, sog. constraints) bestimmt sind. Althebr. Begriffe sind nicht überliefert, obwohl die P. einen beträchtlichen An…

Poetry

(9,931 words)

Author(s): Seybold, Klaus | Bekkum, Wout J. van | Brucker, Ralph | Rösler, Wolfgang | Pollmann, Karla | Et al.
[German Version] I. Bible and Ancient Judaism 1. Old Testament a. General. In biblical studies, poetry (Gk ποίησις/ poíēsis) in contrast to prose generally comprises stanzaic texts in language employing patterns of rhythm and sound, whose structure and style are determined by both linguistic (sound patters, rhyme, clause sequences, etc.) and nonlinguistic factors (so-called constraints: music, ¶ extent, parallel structure, setting, etc.). We do not know the ancient Hebrew poetic terminology, although poetry constitutes a significant portion of Old …