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Al-Khushanī

(423 words)

Author(s): Serrano Ruano, Delfina
Abū ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad ibn Ḥārith ibn Asad al-Khushanī Date of Birth: Latter 9th century Place of Birth: Uncertain; probably Qayrawān Date of Death: 971 Place of Death: Cordova Biography Jurist, poet and renowned author of biographical dictionaries of scholars, al-Khushanī first studied in Qayrawān with Aḥmad ibn Naṣr and Aḥmad ibn Ziyād. Sometime after 923, he travelled to Tunis and Egypt. In 924, he moved to al-Andalus with his father, and finally settled in Cordova. There he continued his studies, and entered the circle close to the future al-Ḥakam II. He acted as ṣāḥib al-mawārith (‘…

 Kitāb al-shifā’ bi-taʿrīf ḥuqūq al-Muṣṭafā

(808 words)

Author(s): Serrano Ruano, Delfina
The cure by acknowledging the rights of the chosen one Al-Qāḍī ʿIyāḍ Date: Between about 1110 and 1136 Original Language: Arabic Description Al-Shifā’ is recognised as the most authoritative reference of its kind. ʽIyāḍ must have completed it before 1136, when he was made qāḍī of Granada, since by this time he was already teaching it to his students. His goal in writing it was to establish Muḥammad’s precedence over other figures (e.g. saints), and to warn Muslims against unbelief ( kufr). The book is divided into four parts. The first deals with references in the sacred tex…

Al-Qāḍī ʿIyāḍ

(471 words)

Author(s): Serrano Ruano, Delfina
Abū l-Faḍl ʿIyāḍ ibn Mūsā ibn ʿIyāḍ al-Yaḥṣubī al-Sabtī Date of Birth: 1083 Place of Birth: Ceuta Date of Death: 1149 Place of Death: Marrakesh Biography Al-Qāḍī ʿIyāḍ was one of the most significant religious personalities of Islamic Spain. He excelled in the fields of prophetic tradition and Islamic jurisprudence, and also wrote on history and literature ( adab). After he composed the Kitāb al-shifā’ bi-taʿrīf ḥuqūq al-Muṣṭafā (‘The cure by the acknowledgement of the rights of the chosen one’), his reputation went beyond the confines of his homeland through the whole Islamic world. He …

ʿArīb ibn Saʿīd

(392 words)

Author(s): Serrano Ruano, Delfina
Abū ʿAlī/Abū l-Ḥasan ʿArīb ibn Saʿīd al-Kātib al-Qurṭubī Date of Birth: Late 9th or early 10th century Place of Birth: Cordova Date of Death: 980-81 Place of Death: Cordova Biography ʿArīb ibn Saʿīd was a physician, chronicler and poet, who held the position of secretary ( kātib) and other functions to the caliphs ʿAbd al-Raḥmān III and al-Ḥakam II, and for the chancellor al-Manṣūr ibn Abī ʿĀmir (Almanzor). Very little is known about his life. As Castilla observes, his short genealogical chain may suggest a recent conversion to Islam, either by some Christian ancestor,…

 Akhbār al-fuqahā’ wa-l-muḥaddithīn

(519 words)

Author(s): Serrano Ruano, Delfina
Reports on legal scholars and traditionists Al-Khushanī Date: Before 961 Original Language: Arabic Description This book comprises 527 biographies of Andalusī scholars who lived between the end of the 8th century and 954 and who came mostly from Cordova, Elvira and Toledo. Entries are arranged in alphabetical order and, as well as the expected geographical and intellectual details about each scholar, al-Khushanī’s accounts abound in anecdotes and other details, which bring the individuals to life. According to M.L. Ávila and L. Molina, two versions of the text, one sho…

 Kitāb al-quḍāt bi-Qurṭuba

(499 words)

Author(s): Serrano Ruano, Delfina
The qadis of Cordova Al-Khushanī Date: Before 971 Original Language: Arabic Description The book contains 36 biographies of qāḍīs of Cordova, preceded by an account of ten scholars who refused the position when it was offered. The entries are arranged in chronological order, from the beginning of the 8th to the end of the 9th century. This is al-Khushanī’s most famous work. He wrote it at the request of the heir to the caliphate, al-Ḥakam, using both written and oral sources. This explains, at least in part, the wealth of anecdotes that illustrate his biographical accounts. A large number …

 Al-bayān al-mughrib fī [ikhtiṣār] akhbār mulūk al-Andalus wa-l-Maghreb

(1,555 words)

Author(s): Serrano Ruano, Delfina
The surpassing explanation, on the [summary of the] history of the kings of al-Andalus and the Maghrib Ibn ʿIdhārī al-Marrākushī Date: Uncertain; around 1312-13 Original Language: Arabic Description This chronicle, which has not been preserved in its complete form, covers the period starting with the conquest of Egypt in 640-41 and ending with the fall of the Almohads. The last events to which it refers took place in 1312-13, which may mark the time at which Ibn ʿIdhārī left off writing. It is divided into three parts. The…

Muʿārik ibn Marwān ibn ʿAbd al-Malik ibn Marwān ibn Mūsā ibn Nuṣayr

(323 words)

Author(s): Serrano Ruano, Delfina
Muʿārik ibn Marwān al-Nuṣayrī Date of Birth: Unknown, 9th c. Place of Birth: Probably Egypt Date of Death: Unknown, 9th c. Place of Death: Probably Egypt Biography Muʿārik ibn Marwān was the great-great-grandson of Mūsā ibn Nuṣayr, the conqueror of al-Andalus. He is reported to have written a book entitled Akhbār al-Andalus ('Historical reports about al-Andalus') dealing with his ancestor's role in this conquest. His place of birth is not known for certain, though M. ʿAlī Makkī suggests that he must have been Egyptian since his great-grandfather…

 Al-aḥkām al-kubrā

(731 words)

Author(s): Serrano Ruano, Delfina
Kitāb al-iʿlām bi-nawāzil al-aḥkāmMajor legal judgements Abū l-Aṣbagh ʿIsā ibn Sahl ibn ʿAbdallāh al-Asadī al-Jayyānī Date: Between 1079 and 1090 Original Language: Arabic Description Al-aḥkām al-kubrā is a collection of legal cases presented before various judicial authorities of al-Andalus. It preserves not only fatwās issued in connection with actual legal cases, but also accounts of the whole legal process followed in their adjudication. In this respect, the collection is a direct witness to what Andalusī judicial records may have lo…

 Fatwā

(486 words)

Author(s): Serrano Ruano, Delfina
Legal opinion Al-Qāḍī ʿIyāḍ Date: Between 1126 and 1149 Original Language: Arabic Description This fatwā is concerned with ‘a church constructed by Christian subjects ( Naṣārā muʿāhidūn) over which a mosque was built: are the endowments ( aḥbās) of the church to be transferred to the mosque or to the public treasury?' The text contains a formal question ( istiftā’) concerning properties endowed for the benefit of an unnamed church, which was presumably in the vicinity of Granada or Seville, together with two answers given by ʿIyāḍ. The church and its en…

Abū l-Aṣbagh ʿIsā ibn Sahl ibn ʿAbdallāh al-Asadī al-Jayyānī

(331 words)

Author(s): Serrano Ruano, Delfina
Ibn Sahl Date of Birth: 1022-23 Place of Birth: Wādī ʿAbd Allāh (Jaen) Date of Death: 4 February 1093 Place of Death: Granada Biography Ibn Sahl is one of the most remarkable authorities of the Andalusī Mālikī school. His composition of a collection of legal cases entitled Al-aḥkām al-kubrā (‘Major legal judgements’) became an essential reference for Mālikī doctrine and legal practice. He performed several judicial functions, and taught Islamic jurisprudence to numerous Mālikī jurists who were active in the Almoravid period. In the years befo…

 Tartīb al-madārik wa-taqrīb al-masālik bi-maʿrifat aʿlām madhhab Mālik

(434 words)

Author(s): Serrano Ruano, Delfina
Tartīb al-madārikThe ordering of perception and facilitation of procedures for knowledge of the most eminent in the school of Mālik Al-Qāḍī ʿIyāḍ Date: Before 1149 Original Language: Arabic Description The Tartīb is a collection of about 1,600 biographies of jurists of the Mālikī school of law, from the founder, Mālik ibn Anas, to ʿIyāḍ’s own time (the precise date of composition is unknown). It is one of the most important sources for the history of the Mālikī school. In the biography of Abū Bakr Yaḥyā ibn Hudhayl, ʿIyāḍ reports about celebrations of St John the Baptist’s Day, the mahrajān

 Al-Imāma wa-l-siyāsa

(588 words)

Author(s): Serrano Ruano, Delfina
On legitimate political leadership and governance Muʿārik ibn Marwān ibn ʿAbd al-Malik ibn Marwān ibn Mūsā ibn Nuṣayr Date: 2nd half of 9th c. Original Language: Arabic Description The book is a collection of miscellaneous narratives and traditions on the eastern caliphs from Abū Bakr to Hārūn al-Rashīd, unsystematically arranged, which, given their different styles, seem to be the work of several authors. A l-Imāma wa-l-siyāsa has been attributed to Ibn Qutayba (d. 889) (q.v.), and often appears under his name in catalogues, though as early as the 12th century the Seville scholar …

Ibn ʿIdhārī al-Marrākushī

(169 words)

Author(s): Serrano Ruano, Delfina
Abū l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad ibn ʿIdhārī al-Marrākushī Date of Birth: Second half of the 13th century Place of Birth: Maghreb Date of Death: 1312-13 or after Place of Death: Maghreb Biography Very little is known about Ibn ʿIdhārī’s life, let alone about how he acquired his vast knowledge of the history of both the eastern and western regions of the Islamic world, a subject on which he wrote two books, the one dealing with the east ( Al-bayān al-mushriq) being lost. From his extant chronicle, Al-bayān al-mughrib, we learn that he was still writing it in 1312-13. We also know th…

 Mukhtaṣar Ta’rīkh al-Ṭabarī

(1,087 words)

Author(s): Serrano Ruano, Delfina
Abridgement of the ‘History’ of al-Ṭabarī ʿArīb ibn Saʿīd Date: Between about 967 and 976 Original Language: Arabic Description The Mukhtaṣar includes historical data on al-Andalus, North Africa and the Islamic east. It was presumably written at the request of the Caliph al-Ḥakam II, who was known for his love of books, as a supplement to the information on al-Andalus and North Africa in al-Ṭabarī’s Ta’rīkh. Apart from al-Ṭabarī, ʿArīb ibn Saʿīd also relied on the works of al-Farghānī to deal with the history of the Islamic east, an assumption that leads Cast…

ʿAmal (judicial practice)

(3,463 words)

Author(s): Serrano Ruano, Delfina
ʿAmal ( judicial practice, pl. aʿmāl) designates a legal practice accepted by the majority of muftīs and qāḍīs of a particular time and place. Its source may be a custom with legal relevance (ʿurf, ʿāda), or it may be a legal opinion transmitted in legal texts. The term also refers to social practices that, while not intrinsically legal, acquire legal relevance in certain circumstances. In t…
Date: 2020-09-16