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al-Ḍabbī, Abū D̲j̲aʿfar

(211 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C.F.
Aḥmad b. Yahyā b. Aḥmad b. ʿAmīra , an Andalusian scholar of the 6th/12th century. According to the information that he gives us in his works concerning himself and his family, he was born at Vélez, to the west of Lorca, and he began his studies in Lorca. He travelled in North Africa (Ceuta, Marrākus̲h̲, Bougie) and even reached Alexandria, but he appears to have spent the greater part of his life at Murcia. He died at the end of Rabī II 599/beginning of 1203. Of his writings only…

ʿĀmirids

(152 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C.F.
, the descendants (and clients of al-Manṣūr b. Abī ʿAmir [ q.v.], in the first place his sons ʿAbd al-Malik and ʿAbd al-Raḥmān [ qq.v.]. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz al-Manṣūr, a son of ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, founded the dynasty of the ʿĀmirids in Valencia, where he ruled 412-53/1021-61. He was succeeded by his son ʿAbd al-Malik al-Muẓaffar [ q.v.], 453-7/1061-5. After a ten years’ interval under al-Maʾmūn of Toledo, ʿAbd al-Malik’s brother, Abū Bakr b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, ¶ ruled in Valencia 468-78/1075-85. In this last year the city was wrested from Abū Bakr’s son, the ḳāḍī

Ibn Faraḥ al-Is̲h̲bīlī

(536 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C.F.
, whose full name was S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. Faraḥ b. Aḥmad b. Muḥammad al-Lak̲h̲mī al-Is̲h̲bīlī al-S̲h̲āfiʿī , born in 625/1228 at Seville (Is̲h̲bīliya [ q.v.]), was taken prisoner in 646/1248 by the Franks (al-Ifrand̲j̲), i.e., the Spaniards under Ferdinand III the Saint, of Castile (1217-52), at the conquest of Seville, but escaped and afterwards went, between 650 and 660/1252-62, to Egypt; after hearing the most celebrated teachers of Cairo, he studied under those of Damascus, where he settled and gave lectures …

Wādī Yāna or Āna

(196 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C.F.
, or Nahr Yāna/Āna , the classical Anas, Span. Guadiana, Port. Odiana, a great river of the south-central and southwestern parts of the Iberian peninsula. It rises in the southeastern part of the central Meseta, in the Serranía de Cuenca [see Ḳūnka ], as the Záncara and Gigüela rivers, and flows westwards and then southwards to the Adantic, with a course of 578 km/360 miles. Its last part, below Pomarâo, forms part of the modern boundary between Spain and Portugal; only this section, and a little further upstream t…

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(533 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
, the name of five Spanish Umaiyads: 1. ʿAbd al-raḥmān I B. Muʿāwiya b. His̲h̲ām escaped from the slaughter which the ʿAbbāsides in 750 perpetrated on his family, and after long wanderings in North Africa came to Spain, where in 756 he founded the independent Emirate (subsequently also Sultanate) of the Umaiyads at Cordova. By his statesmanlike cunning and restless energy, which with all his determination and strength of character yet for the most part never degenerated into the often so useless cruelty and b…

Alhandega

(88 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
(Arabic al-k̲h̲andaḳ = “the moat”) was the scene of the crushing defeat of ʿAbd al-Raḥmān III of Cordova by king Ramiro of Leon and Queen Tota of Navarre, in the year 939. The name is, at the present day, only found in Fresno- and Torre-Alhándiga, south of Salamanca and Alba de Tormes. (C. F. Seybold) Bibliography Dozy, Hist. des Musulmans d’Espagne iii. 62 et seq. the same, Recherches sur l’histoire et la littérature de l’Espagne (3rd ed.) i. 156—170 Madoz, Diccionario geográfico-estadístico-histórico ii. 184 (“Alóndiga ó Alhóndiga”).

Balearic Islands

(736 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
, Greek ΒαλιαρεĩΣ, Latin Baliares, which form has more authority than Baleares, usually but falsely derived from βάλλειν “to throw”, because the ancient inhabitants were good slingers and as such served in the Roman and Carthaginian armies, earlier called Gymnesiae Insulae after the almost naked horsemen, a group of islands in the western Mediterranean. The name includes in the narrower sense, ¶ the two principal islands, lying to the north-east: Mallorca (Insula Major, since the time of Procopius Majorica, Majorca) and Minorca (Insula Minor, Minorica) wi…

Ḏj̲ahwar

(234 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
The Banū Ḏj̲ahwar were an oldestablished influential A r a b family in Cordova, which produced numerous scholars, jurists and particularly viziers. After the fall of the Umaiyads the shrewd vizier of the last of them, Abu ’l-Ḥazm Ḏj̲ahwar b. Muḥammad b. Ḏj̲ahwar made himself President of the republic or Regent ( Raʾīs) of Cordova 422—435 = 1031—1043. Dozy ( Histoire, iv. 298) makes his son Abu ’l-Walīd Muḥammad b. Ḏj̲ahwar reign from 1043—1064, while Lane-Poole, Mohammadan Dynasties gives his date as 435—450=1043—1058 and his son Abd al-Malik’s correspondingly 1064—1070 …

Albufera

(51 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
(Portuguese: Albuera, variants Albufeira, Albuera; from Arabic al-buḥaira, small sea, lake) is the name of a lagoon near Valencia, the Palus Naccararum of the ancients. Part of it has been drained both with the alluvium and by artificial means, and is now used for growing rice. (C. F. Seybold)

al-Mudawwar

(82 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C.F.
(a.) “that which is round”, has given, under the form almodovar , the name to a small river of the province of Cadiz which flows from the south-east into the Laguna de la Janda, and also to several places in Spain and Portugal: Almodovar del Rio, below Cordova; Almodovar del Campo (or de Calatrava), to the south-west of Ciudad Real; Almodovar del Pinar, in the province of Cunenca; and Almodovar to the west of Mértola in southern Portugal. (C.F. Seybold)

Algeziras

(246 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
(or algeciras), Arabic: al-Ḏj̲azīra al-Ḵh̲aḍrāʾ, “the green island” (named after the Isla Verde lying in front of it), sometimes called Ḏj̲azīrat Umm Ḥakīm, the first Spanish town taken by Ṭarīf, in Ramaḍān 91 (Juiy 710). It lies on the bay of Algeciras or of Gibraltar, and, together with the latter place, served the Arabs as a harbour and dockyard. The first governors, and after them the Umaiyads, the petty kings, the Almoravids, the Almohads and the Naṣrids all used to cross to the African coas…

Denia

(711 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
is the chief town in the northeastern district of the Spanish province of Alicante, the most southerly of the three modern provinces (Castellón de la Plana, Valencia, Alicante) which make up the ancient kingdom of Valencia, with 14,000 inhabitants, situated almost at the southeast end of the Gulf of Valencia (Sinus Sucronensis) north of Mongo (2196 feet high), in Arabic Ḏj̲ebel Ḳāʿūn = Mon(t)gó, was on account of its good harbour, northwest of the ancient Promontorium Artemisium, Ferrarium or T…

Alcalde

(39 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
(from Arabic al-ḳāḍī = judge) is a Spanish name for “mayor”, not to be confused with alcaide (from al-ḳāʾid = leader, general) which in Spanish means “commandant of a fortress”, “steward of a castle”. (C. F. Seybold)

Guadalajara

(480 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
, the capital of the Spanish province of the same name, on the plateau (2000 feet high) of northeastern Castile, with 12,000 inhabitants, is the ancient Arriaca (from arri, Basque “stone”) on the left (eastern) bank of the Henares, which the Arabs called Wādi ’l-Ḥid̲j̲āra “Stone-river” ( amnis lapidum in Rodericus Toletanus), whence the name Guadalaxara, ¶ the modern Guadalajara, which was then transferred to the town and used particularly of it; the latter was also called Madīnat al-Farad̲j̲, which might be translated “city of joy”, if a note by al-Yaʿḳūbī did not inform…

Alhama

(106 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
(from Arabic al-Ḥamma and al-Ḥāmma, “the hot bath”) is the name of various places and of a few streams in Spain, the best known being (1) Alhama, south-west of Granada at the northern foot of the Sierra de Alhama and on the Rio Alhama; in 1482 it was surprised and taken by Ferdinand the Catholic of Aragon, the prelude to the conquest of Granada 1492, cf. the well-known popular ballad); on December 25th 1884 it was almost completely destroyed by an earthquake. (2) Alhama on the upper Jalón, south-west of Saragossa, the ancient Aquae Bilbilitanae. (3) Alhama between Murcia and Lorca. (C. F. Seybo…

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz

(171 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
b. Mūsā b. Nuṣair, a governor. When his father, the famous conqueror of Spain, left this country in the year 95 (713), he remained behind as governor and married the widow of the Gothic king Roderick, named by the Arabs Eyilo, Ailo (Egilona), or Umm ʿĀṣim after her son. According to al-Wāḳidī and other Arabian chroniclers, it was the arrogance of this woman which caused the Arab troops to murder him in the year 97 (715) in the monastery of Santa Rufina near Seville, to day known as the Convento Cap…

Bobastro

(165 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
, a ruined mountain fortress in Andalusia. After Casiri and Conde Bobastro had been confused with the Babastro in Aragon and also with Huéscar in the extreme north east of the province of Granada Dozy thought ( Recherches I, 323—327 and Histoire des Musulmans II, 195), that it ought to be identified with the ruins of the ancient Municipium Singiliense Barbastrense (Singilia Barba), the modéra el Castillon near Teba, west of Antequera in the upper Guadalhorce valley. Simonet more correctly seeks to connect it with Estébanez Calderon betwe…

Alpuente

(114 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
, a small Spanish town in the north-west of the present province of Valencia, on the eastern slopes of the Guadalaviar-Turia valley, in Arabic al-Būnt, al-Bont, al-Font; after the fall of the Umaiyads of Cordova it had a dynasty of its own, the Banū Ḳāsim: ʿAbd Allāh b. Ḳāsim al-Fihrī Niẓām al-Dawla till 1030, his son Muḥammed Yumn al-Dawla and his grandson Aḥmed ʿAḍud al-Dawla till 1048-1049, and his brother ʿAbd Allāh II. Ḏj̲anāḥ al-Dawla 1048-1049 till 1092; then it fell to the Almoravids and…

Cádiz

(943 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
(rarely also in an older form Cáliz), written Cadix in French, Portugese and German, but pronounced Cádiz, Cadice (whence Cadissen, Spanish Gaditano, German Cadizer) is at the present day the capital of the province of the same name, the most southern of Spain, with 70,000 inhabitants, lying on the Bay and Gulf of Cádiz on the Atlantic Ocean northwest of the straits of Gibraltar. It was founded about 1100 B. C. by Phoenicians from Sidon as a depot for the tin which was brought from the Cassiterides (B…

Écija

(390 words)

Author(s): Seybold, C. F.
, the capital of a district in the eastern province of Seville in Spain with 25,000 inhabitants, is picturesquely situated on the left bank of the lower course of the Genil, which is navigable below it, in a torrid valley, — whence it is called el Sarten de España “the bakehouse of Spain”; its streets are narrow and its church towers (formerly minarets) covered with azulejos. It is the ancient Iberian Astigi of which the Arabs made Istid̲j̲a, Estid̲j̲a (rarely Essid̲j̲a in this period) whence is derived the Spanish Écija (st > c, z, as in Basti, Basṭa, Baza; Caesaraugusta, …
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