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Guttural Consonants: Modern Hebrew

(2,442 words)

Author(s): Shatil, Nimrod
1. History of Gutturals in Modern Hebrew At the time of its revival Hebrew had served for several decades as the lingua franca in Palestine, with its pronunciation based on the system of the dominant group, the Sephardic community. In 1913 the Assembly of Hebrew Teachers adopted Sephardic pronunciation as the norm. The Sephardic Jews in Palestine pronounced the gutturals as in Arabic, which influenced the norm of Modern Hebrew (Bendavid and Shuy 1974). Morag (1959) notes that of all language components, phonetics are the least responsive to language planning. The obli…

Regularization of Paradigm

(3,203 words)

Author(s): Shatil, Nimrod
1. Introduction: Terminology and Scope The term ‘regularization of paradigms’ refers to a morphological shift from one type of marking, in which inflection is effected through internal changes of the lexical base, to another type of marking, in which inflection is effected through linear means with no change in the lexical base. Sometimes the two processes are combined, i.e., there is both an internal change and linear inflection in the form of a suffix (e.g., ספר sefer ‘book’, ספרים sfar-im ‘books’). In English, most nouns are inflected by adding the suffix - s/-es, e.g., boot-boot-s, b…


(1,133 words)

Author(s): Shatil, Nimrod
1. Introduction ‘Analogy’ is a cognitive process that enables humans to construct paradigms by finding similarities among different elements. Analogy is one of the innate human competencies. Deutscher (2005:173) calls this force “the mind’s craving for order”. Morphological analogy is usually differentiated from semantic analogy, which is known as ‘metaphor’. The present review follows this tradition, limiting itself to issues of morphology. In traditional grammars, the term analogy is used to describe most forms that do not comply…

Baghdad, Pronunciation Tradition

(2,293 words)

Author(s): Shatil, Nimrod
1. Historical background Baghdad became the central Jewish city of contemporary Iraq after the Abbasid caliphs turned it into their capital in 762 C.E. During the 9th and 10th centuries, the famous Babylonian academies, Sura and Pumbedita, moved into the city, retaining their traditional names. The community flourished until the end of the 12th century, when a great decline took place. After the Mongolian conquest in 1393, there were no Jews in the city for one-hundred years. Thereafter the community recovered gradually until 1948, when most of its members emigrated to Israel. The pron…


(660 words)

Author(s): Shatil, Nimrod
The term ‘doublet’ refers to several different phenomena in Hebrew linguistics. The first listed below reflects the most traditional use of the word. (1) It can refer to two or more words in the same language derived from the same etymon along different courses, such as skirt and shirt or chef and chief in English. An example in Hebrew is illustrated by the Biblical Hebrew roots מח״ץ m-ḥ-ṣ, מח״ק m-ḥ-q, and מח״א m-ḥ-ʾ, all of which represent one Semitic root, * m-ḥ-ɬ’ ‘beat, strike’. The historical *ɬ’ (sometimes transcribed with the symbol ) shifted in Hebrew to , but in Aramaic to q and later…