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(842 words)

Author(s): Siddiqui, Mona
Beating with a rod or whip. Flogging ( jald) is a common punishment in Islamic law (see chastisement and punishment; law and the qurʾān), prescribed both as a ḥadd (i.e. divinely sanctioned) and as a taʿzīr penalty (i.e. at the judge's discretion; see prohibited degrees ). The Arabic term jald is from the root j-l-d, meaning to flog, whip or lash and it appears in the Qurʾān in the form of a command (q.v.) against the culprits ( ijlidū at q 24:2 and ijlidūhum at q 24:4). Flogging is the ḥadd punishment prescribed in the Qurʾān for the crimes of fornication ( zināʾ) and false accusation of fornic…


(2,158 words)

Author(s): Siddiqui, Mona
Device that creates separation or privacy. The concept of veiling associated with a woman covering her body (see nudity ) appears in no definitive terms in the Qurʾān. Instead the Qurʾān contains various verses (q.v.) in which the word ḥijāb literally a “screen, curtain,” from the root ḥ-j-b, meaning to cover or screen, is used to refer to a sense of separation, protection and covering that has both concrete and metaphorical connotations (see metaphor ). Ḥijāb has, however, evolved in meaning and is most commonly used to denote the idea of a Muslim woman's veil, either…


(718 words)

Author(s): Siddiqui, Mona
A woman whose husband has died. The Qurʾān speaks of the widow by addressing the male believers in q 2:234-5 (see belief and unbelief ), who die leaving behind wives (yadharūna azwājan). The term itself has no Arabic equivalent in the Qurʾān though it is implied in the status of the thayyibāt in q 66:5, which refers to any woman who is not a virgin (see chastity; abstinence), a woman who has had sexual intercourse (see sex and sexuality ) either as a previously married woman, a divorced woman (see marriage and divorce ) or a ¶ widow. In this particular verse, the wives of the Prophet (q.v.)…