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(501 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
(Persian: “cushion”), Turkish: yastuḳ , a 13th century Mongolian monetary unit, which was in use particularly in the eastern part of the Empire. It is, however, also mentioned frequently by the Īlk̲h̲āns [ q.v.] in Īrān. In China it appears as late as the 14th century. The bālis̲h̲ was coined in gold and in silver, and (according to Ḏj̲uwaynī. GMS i, 16, and Waṣṣāf, lith. Bombay, 22), corresponded to 500 mit̲h̲ḳāl (according to W. Hinz, Islamische Masse und Gewichte , Leiden 1955, 1-8, on the basis of numismatic observations: 4. 3 g. each; Ḏj̲uwaynī. trans. J. A. Boyle, i, 22, writes loc. cit. o…


(923 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
, one of the local dynasties characteristic of Persian mediaeval times, which after the downfall of the Sald̲j̲ūḳ empire succeeded in maintaining their position in the hot, humid and mountainous regions of Iran throughout the Mongol period and to some extent into Tīmūrid times, and ¶ which thus contributed to the preservation of a native Persian individuality even under foreign dynasties. From their capital Īd̲h̲ad̲j̲ [ q.v.], the Hazāraspids ruled over eastern and southern Luristān [ q.v.] from about 550/1155-6 to 827/1424, though the extent of their domains varied gre…

Bayram ʿAlī

(127 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
, place on the Trans-Caspian Railway, 461/9 m. (57 km.) to the east of Marw, with a Persian population, now in the Marw (Mary) district of the Türkmen SSR, situated close by the oasis of Old Marv which was created by the Murg̲h̲āb [ q.v.] and existed until the 18th century. Its ruins cover an area of some 50 sq. km. In the 19th century the region became part of the emperor’s personal domain, which existed until 1917. Today there is an agricultural research station and an agricultural technical school in Bayram ʿAlī. There are vineyards and orchards, and both silk worms and karakul sheep are bred. (B.…


(143 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
, word for “castle”, already attested in ancient Turkish and Uygur (Turfan, the Kutadg̲h̲u Bilig ) and perhaps connected with “Kerd̲j̲iye” in Tokharian B. It was later adopted with This meaning by the Mongols. The town of Nak̲h̲s̲h̲ab, or Nasaf [ q.v.], was called Ḳars̲h̲i after a castle built two parasangs from the town by the Čag̲h̲atay ruler Kebek K̲h̲ān (1318-26). The stream which flows through the steppes was called Ḳars̲h̲i-daryā. The town is mentioned in Bābur’s [ q.v.] memoirs and a popular etymology of the name exists. The town, was formerly an important trade-ce…


(1,044 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
(Arabic rendering: Ṣag̲h̲āniyān). In the early Middle Ages this was the name given to the district of the Čag̲h̲ān-Rūd [ q.v.] valley. This river is the northernmost tributary of the river Āmū-Daryā [ q.v.]. The district lies to the north of the town of Tirmid̲h̲ [ q.v.], the area of which, however, (including Čamangān) did not form part of Čag̲h̲āniyān either politically or administratively (Ibn Ḵh̲urradād̲h̲bih, 39). Wē/ais̲h̲agirt (= Fayḍābād) was regarded as the boundary with the district of Ḵh̲uttalān ([ q.v.]; between the rivers Pand̲j̲ and Wak̲h̲s̲h̲). Incidentally, t…


(438 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
, Banū , a Kurdish dynasty which ruled in S̲h̲abānkāra [ q.v.] from 448/1056 to 718/1318-9. Very little is known about them except for the founder of the dynasty Faḍlawayh (in Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, x, 48: Faḍlūn) and for members of the family during the Ilk̲h̲ān period [ q.v.]. Faḍlawayh, son of the chief ʿAlī b. al-Ḥasan b. Ayyūb of the Kurdish tribe Rāmānī in S̲h̲abānkāra, was originally a general (Sipāh-Sālār) under the Buwayhids [ q.v.] and closely connected with their vizier Ṣāḥib ʿĀdil. When the latter was executed after a change of government, Faḍlawayh eliminated th…


(431 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
, in the Tatar language bali̊klava (with the folk-etymological meaning of “fishery”, “fishing-place”), a small port in the Crimea, on a deep inlet of the Black Sea. Balaklava, which is not visible from the open sea, lies 16 km. south of Sevastópól’. The town was known to the Greek geographers (Strabo, etc.) under the name of Palakion on the sea-inlet Συμβόλων λιμήν and was inhabited by Taurians, who used it also as a place of refuge. It came later under Roman and Byzantine rule and during the 9th-13th centuries acted as the cent…

Aḳ Ṣu

(30 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
( ak̲h̲ ṣu ), village near S̲h̲emāk̲h̲ī. (Russian Shemakhā) in Soviet Ād̲h̲arbayd̲j̲ān. With a mosque, a bazar and with the ruins of “New S̲h̲emāk̲h̲ī” [ q.v.]. (B. Spuler)


(232 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
, mighty, ca. 1000 miles long mountain system in eastern Central Asia, stretching from the Saisan Sea in the southwest to the upper Selenga and the upper Ork̲h̲on, with the sources of the Obʾ, the Irti̊s̲h̲ and the Yenissei. Here, and in the adjacent country to the north-east as far as the present-day Mongolia, was the oldest home of the Turks and the Mongols and their ancestors. The Turks had here for a long time after their "refuge" in the Ötükän [ q.v.] mountains. The oldest Turkish designation for the southern Altai, as it appears in the inscriptions of the Ork̲h̲on, is A…


(311 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B
, more correctly B/Pinākat̲h̲ (thus in Muḳaddasī, 277, l. 1; in Sogdian: Bi/unēkat̲h̲, “chief town”, “capital”), but in D̲j̲uwaynī, i, 47 Fanāka(n)t—a small town at the confluence of the Ilak (today the Āhangarān/Angren), flowing from the right, with the Jaxartes (Iranian: Ḵh̲as̲h̲ant— cf. Ḥudūd al-ʿĀlam , 118, 210 ff., and also ibid., 72, where it is named Ūzgand). It lies almost south-east of Tas̲h̲kent (Čāč/S̲h̲ās̲h̲) and was once a flourishing place ( Ḥudūd al-ʿĀlam, 118), possessed however no walls and had its mosque in the bazaar (Muḳaddasī, 277; cf. also al-Ḵh̲wārizmī, in C. A…

Āmū Daryā

(3,532 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
, the river Oxus. Names. The river was known in antiquity as ῎Οξος, (also ῏Ωξος, Latin Oxus); length 2494-2340 kms. The present Iranian designation is traceable to the town of Āmul [ q.v.], later Āmū, where the route from Ḵh̲urāsān to Transoxania crossed the river as long ago as the early Islamic period. The Greek name is, according to W. Geiger and J. Markwart ( Wehrot , 3, 89) derived from the Iranian root wak̲h̲s̲h̲ , "to increase"; a derivation from the homonymous root meaning "to sprinkle" is also possible. (Cf. the name of the Wak̲h̲s̲h̲āb, …


(183 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
, also Kaylif , a town on the Amu-Daryā (al-Masʿūdī, viii, 64 calls the latter “Kālif River”), west-north-west of Tirmid̲h̲. The main part of the town with the fortress Rībāṭ D̲h̲ī-l-Ḳarnayn lay to the south of the river; there was a castle nearby. On the outskirts on the northern bank lay the fortress called Ribāṭ Dhīl-Kifl [see d̲h̲u ’l-ḳifl ]. In 1220 the Khwārizms̲h̲āh Muḥammad II marched on the town to prevent the Mongols from crossing the Amū-Daryā. According to Mustawfī, Nuzhat al-Ḳulūb , 156 (translation 153), Kālif was famous in the 8th/14th cen…


(755 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
, main town of a district in Transoxania, is situated on the Ḵh̲ānaka, a tributary of the Kāfirnihān, 675 metres above sea level, in a fertile but humid and unhealthy region, bounded by the Zarafs̲h̲ān and the Ḳi̊zi̊l Su (cf. Cleinow and R. Olzscha, Turkestan , Heidelberg 1942, 187; illustration of the town at the beginning of the 19th century in Fr. v. Schwarz, Turkestan, Freiburg/Br. 1900, 233). At the time of the Arab conquest of Transoxania early in the 2nd/8th century, the place was called S̲h̲ūmān and constituted a small independent principality, which later came under the rule of ¶ …

Gök Tepe

(184 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
(Turkish “blue hill”), transcribed in Russian “Geok Tepe”, a fort in the oasis of the Ak̲h̲al-Teke [ q.v.] Turkmen, on the Sasi̊k su (Sasi̊k Āb), situated about 45 km. west of ʿAs̲h̲ḳābād, today in the Soviet Republic of Turkmenistān. It consists ¶ of a series of isolated places, one of which, Dengil Tepe (4½ km. in circumference), was defended from I until 24 Jan. 1881 (new style) by about 12,000 Ak̲h̲al-Teke Turkmen [see teke ] against the Russians under General Mik̲h̲aїl Dmitrievič Skobelev (about 8,000 Caucasians and Turkestanis). Both sides suffered heavy losses,…


(677 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
, S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Muḥammad b. MuḤammad , Persian statesman known as “Ṣāḥib Dīwān” , brother of the historian ʿAlāʾ al-Dīn D̲j̲uwaynī (difference in their respective ages unknown), was made Chief Minister in 661/1262-3 by the Ilk̲h̲ān Hülegü [ q.v.], according to Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn, ed. Quatremère, i, 302 ff., 402. Nothing is known about his youth, and his brother does not mention him in his historical work. He became Ṣāḥib ( -i) Dīwān (approximately equivalent to Finance Minister), and also held This post under Abaḳa (664-81/1265-82); with the hel…


(335 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
or ak̲h̲s̲h̲īkat̲h̲ (Sogdian, "city of the prince"), in the 4th/10th century capital of Farg̲h̲āna and residence of the amīr and his lieutenants ( ʿummāl ), on the north bank of the Si̊r Daryā (Jaxartes), near the mouth of the Kasānsay, at the foot of a mountain. Ibn Ḵh̲urradād̲h̲bih, 208, calls the place Madīnat Farg̲h̲āna, "the city of Farg̲h̲āna"; according to Ibn Ḥawḳal (Kramers), 512, it was a large town (1 sq. mile) with many canals and a citadel where stood the Friday Mosque, the governor’s…


(775 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
, name of two towns, and their respective districts in north-eastern Īrān: 1) A town north-east of Harāt, the capital of the southern part of the Bādg̲h̲īs [ q.v.] region, and the second largest town in that region (“half the size of Būs̲h̲and̲j̲”), and according to Yāḳūt (i, 461), the capital of the whole of Bādg̲h̲īs around the year 596/1200. The town was situated upon a hill in a fertile area, and near a silver mine; it was built of brick. In 98/716-7, Dihistān is mentioned as the seat of a Persian dihḳān (Ṭabarī, ii, 1320); ca. 426/1035, it came into the possession of a Turkish dihḳān (these tit…


(314 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
( Fūmin ), the centre of a region ( ḳaṣaba ) in Gīlān [ q.v.], with (in 1914) about 27,000 inhabitants (mostly S̲h̲īʿī Persians: Gīlak) whose main crops are rice and some cereals, and who also produce silk. The town of Fūman is 21 km. W.S.W. of Ras̲h̲t [ q.v.] on the right bank of the Gāzrūdbār and it contains some four hundred houses. Before the advent of Islam in the 7th-8th century it was the seat of the Dābūya dynasty [ q.v.] and for part of the middle ages it was considered the most important town in Gīlān. After the country’s surrender to the Mongols in 1307, the prince…


(173 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
(also known as Guwāk̲h̲arz), a region in Ḵh̲urāsān between Harāt and Nīs̲h̲āpūr (south of ¶ Ḏj̲ām on the river Harāt), regarded as being particularly fertile-; famous in the 10th century for its export of grain and grapes (and in the 14th century for its particularly good water melons as well). Mālīn (variants: Mālin and Mālān) was the capital of the region, and in the 10th century it had a population of considerable size. According to descriptions of that time, it was situated on the si…


(433 words)

Author(s): Spuler, B.
(properly ʿis̲h̲ḳābād ; according to the Turkish pronounciation of the Arab word ʿis̲h̲ḳ , “love”, called by the Russians since 1924 As̲h̲k̲h̲abad, previously till 1921 Askhabad, 1921-4 Poltorack), a town, since 1924 the capital of the SSR of Türkmenistān. It lies in an oasis south of the desert Ḳara Ḳum and developed out of a Turcoman awl with (1881, time of the Russ. conquest) 500 tents. Already in the year 1897 it had, as capital of the district Transcaspia (Zakaspiyskaya Oblast’), 19,428 inhabitants, chiefly merchants and of…
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