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Prayer and Liturgy

(3,357 words)

Author(s): Stefan Reif
1. Origins The Jews who found themselves part of the vast and newly established Islamic empire of the seventh century had already laid the foundations of their prayer customs and synagogal liturgy. In the course of the previous six centuries they had moved the focus of their religious activity from the Temple they had lost into the domestic, intellectual, and liturgical centers they had developed by way of replacement. In those centers, they had laid down rules for the recitation of the Shemaʿ and the ʿ Amida, with their constituent and attendant benedictions, the Qiddush and Havdala that …