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 Min qawl Abī Rāʾiṭa l-Takrītī al-Suryānī usquf Nasībīn mustadillan bihi ʿalā ṣiḥḥat al-Naṣrāniyya l-maqbūla min al-dāʿīn al-mubashshirīn bihā bi-l-Injīl al-muqaddas

(688 words)

Author(s): Toenies Keating, S.
From the teaching of Abū Rāʾiṭa l-Takrītī, the Syrian, Bishop of Nisibis, by which he demonstrates the authenticity of the Christianity received from the Evangelists who called to it by the Holy Gospel, The authenticity of Christianity Ḥabīb ibn Khidma Abū Rāʾiṭa l-Takrītī Date: Unknown, probably between 815 and 828 Original Language: Arabic Description This logical proof is the shortest of Abū Rāʾiṭa's extant writings and is unique both in its form and intended readership. In a few short lines, it offers a proof for the validity of Christianity ba…

 Risāla li-Abī Rāʾiṭa l-Takrītī fī ithbāt dīn al-naṣrāniyya wa-ithbāt al-Thālūth al-muqaddas

(436 words)

Author(s): Toenies Keating, S.
A Risāla of Abū Rāʾiṭa l-Takrītī on the proof of the Christian religion and the proof of the Holy Trinity, On the proof of Christianity and the Trinity Ḥabīb ibn Khidma Abū Rāʾiṭa l-Takrītī Date: Unknown, probably between 815 and 825 Original Language: Arabic Description This is the longest and most comprehensive of Abū Rāʾiṭa’s extant works. Known manuscripts lack the conclusion and the ‘Proof of the Holy Trinity’ referred to by the copyist in the title. The Proof provides the reader with potential questions and responses to be used in debates with Muslims over the truth…

 Unknown risāla in a set of three rasāʾil on the Holy Trinity and the Incarnation

(278 words)

Author(s): Toenies Keating, S.
Unknown risāla in a set of three rasāʾil on the Holy Trinity and the Incarnation Ḥabīb ibn Khidma Abū Rāʾiṭa l-Takrītī Date: Unknown, later than the Risāla on the Holy Trinity and the Risāla on the Incarnation, probably between 815 and 828 Original Language: Arabic Description The brief entry on Abū Rāʾiṭa in the 11th-century Copto-Arabic florilegium Iʿtirāf al-ābāʾ, ‘The confession of the Fathers’, includes a quotation from the second risāla On the Incarnation (see above), which is described as al-risāla l-thāniya min al-thalāth rasāʾil allatī qālahā fī l-Thālūth al-muqadd…

 Risāla lahu ilā man bi-l-Baḥrīn min Naṣāra l-maghrib

(365 words)

Author(s): Toenies Keating, S.
His risāla to those of Baḥrīn, of the Christians of the West, Letter to the Christians of Baḥrīn Ḥabīb ibn Khidma Abū Rāʾiṭa l-Takrītī Date: Unknown, before the second risāla On the Incarnation Original Language: Arabic Description At the end of the ‘Second Risāla : On the Incarnation’, Abū Rāʾiṭa makes a reference to his risāla in response to one from the people of Baḥrīn (probably the Syrian Orthodox community of the town of Baḥrīn near Mosul, or, less likely, Baḥrayn), in which he offered an exegesis of Christ’s words and deeds in his incarnate humility. While the full text of Abū Rāʾiṭa’s ris…

 Shahādāt min qawl al-Tawrāt wa-l-anbiyāʾ wa-l-qiddīsīn

(362 words)

Author(s): Toenies Keating, S.
Witnesses from the words of the Torah, the prophets and the saints Ḥabīb ibn Khidma Abū Rāʾiṭa l-Takrītī Date: Unknown, probably between 820 and 830 Original Language: Arabic Description Extant manuscripts give no title or author for this text, simply beginning with ‘Witnesses from the words of the Torah’. It has, however, been included among copies of other writings associated with Abū Rāʾiṭa and has not been attributed to anyone else. Further, most of the passages are found in similar translations throughout his other apologetic writings. The text itself is a list of approximat…

Unknown author

(179 words)

Author(s): Toenies Keating, S.
A Christological discussion Date of Birth: Unknown, perhaps later 8th c. Place of Birth: Unknown, perhaps Iraq Date of Death: Unknown, perhaps later 9th c. Place of Death: Unknown, perhaps Iraq Biography We have no information about the author of a brief report on a Christological discussion that took place in the presence of a Muslim official, other from what can be gleaned from the report itself. Assuming that the meeting did indeed take place and that the report was written soon after the event, we are led to a date in the …

Ḥabīb ibn Khidma Abū Rāʾiṭa l-Takrītī

(1,753 words)

Author(s): Toenies Keating, S.
Abū Rāʾiṭa l-Takrītī Date of Birth: Unknown, probably late 8th c. Place of Birth: Unknown, probably in or near Takrīt, Iraq Date of Death: Unknown, probably soon after 830 Place of Death: Unknown, possibly in or near Takrīt, Iraq Biography Almost nothing is known of Abū Rāʾiṭa himself apart from what can be deduced from his writings and from contemporary accounts of three events (discussed below) with which he is associated. It is fairly certain that he was a layman living in the ancient Christian city of Takrīt , north of Baghdad, an…

 Al-risāla l-ūlā fī l-Thālūth al-muqaddas

(541 words)

Author(s): Toenies Keating, S.
The first Risāla : On the Holy Trinity, On the Trinity Ḥabīb ibn Khidma Abū Rāʾiṭa l-Takrītī Date: Unknown, probably between 815 and 828 Original Language: Arabic Description This risāla is apparently the first of a group of three which Abū Rāʾiṭa presents as the answer to a request by an unknown fellow Syrian Orthodox. It serves as an introduction to the ensuing proof of the Holy Trinity, as well as to his second risāla on the Incarnation and to a third text now lost. The text begins with a comment on the difficulties faced by one who engages in debate with ‘those who differ’, …

 Qīl anna ʿAbd Īshūʿ al-muṭrān al-Nasṭūrī wa-Abī Qurra l-usquf al-Malikī wa-Abī Rā’iṭa l-Yaʿqūbī ijtamaʿū ʿinda aḥad al-wuzarā’

(480 words)

Author(s): Toenies Keating, S.
It is said that ʿAbd Īshūʿ, the Nestorian metropolitan, Abū Qurra, the Melkite bishop, and Abū Rāʾiṭa, the Jacobite, met before one of the viziers’ (first line of the text)A Debate between Theodore Abū Qurra, Abū Rāʾiṭa and ʿAbd Īshūʿ Unknown author Date: Unknown, 820s or shortly thereafter Original Language: Arabic Description In this brief account of a meeting before an unnamed Muslim official by representatives from three Christian denominations, each is asked to give a short summary of the teaching of his own church on the Incarnation. It is …

 Al-risāla l-thāniya li-Abī Rāʾiṭa l-Takrītī fī l-tajassud

(624 words)

Author(s): Toenies Keating, S.
The second Risāla of Abū Rā’iṭa l-Takrītī: On the Incarnation, On the Incarnation Ḥabīb ibn Khidma Abū Rāʾiṭa l-Takrītī Date: Later than the Risāla l-ūlā, probably between 815 and 828 Original Language: Arabic Description The risāla On the Incarnation is written with the same purpose and to the same audience as the risāla On the Holy Trinity; it is nearly twice as long. The treatise begins with a short transitional passage and then immediately addresses the relationship between the Trinity and the incarnate Christ. Abū Rāʾiṭa then turns to the problems of h…