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(1,640 words)

Author(s): Unschuld, Paul U.
The idea of state-sponsored medicine and health care appeared only sporadically in Chinese society until the beginning of the 20th century. The year 850 saw the first government effort to collect and publish all available medical knowledge. In the 11th and 12th centuries, imperial decrees promoted the creation of hospitals and pharmacies. Such measures did not have far-reaching effects however. A relatively small number of self-taught and local physicians, lacking any formal training, practiced …


(2,273 words)

Author(s): Unschuld, Paul U.
As in other civilizations, the art of healing has been known in China since prehistorical times. The development of medicine as such has been recognizable in China since about the 3rd century BCE. At the time, there began the acquisition of scientific insights of a systematic correspondence among all phenomena and their transfer to dealing with the human organism and its deviations from an assumed norm, which were interpreted as diseases. This took place within the framework of a dualism called