Search

Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Vacca, V." ) OR dc_contributor:( "Vacca, V." )' returned 35 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

Naḍīr

(620 words)

Author(s): Vacca, V.
, Banu ’l- , one of the two main Jewish tribes of Medina, settled in Yat̲h̲rib from Palestine at an unknown date, as a consequence of Roman pressure after the Jewish wars. Al-Yaʿḳūbī (ii, 49) says they were a section of the D̲j̲ud̲h̲ām Arabs, converted to Judaism and first settled on Mount al-Naḍīr, whence their name; according to the Sīra Ḥalabiyya (Cairo, iii, 2) they were a truly Jewish tribe, connected with the Jews of K̲h̲aybar [ q.v.]. This seems the more probable, but a certain admixture of Arab blood is possible; like the other Jews of Medina, they bore Arabic na…

Usāma b. Zayd

(619 words)

Author(s): Vacca, V.
b. Ḥārit̲h̲a al-Kalbī al-Hās̲h̲imī , Abū muḥammad , son of the Abyssinian freedwoman Baraka Umm Ayman and reckoned among the Prophet’s freedmen, was born in Mecca in the fourth year of Muḥammad’s mission. Tradition records many instances of the Prophet’s fondness for him as a child, and gives him the surname of Ḥibb b. Ḥibb Rasūl Allāh. He joined the fighters on the way to Uḥud [ q.v.], but was sent back before battle on account of his tender age. Questioned by Muḥammad in the case of slander against ʿĀʾis̲h̲a, he spoke in her favour. After K̲h̲aybar he receive…

Ḳamarān

(479 words)

Author(s): Vacca, V.
, coralline island (with numerous small islets) in Yemeni territorial waters, less than three miles from the Salīf peninsula, 200 miles north of Perim; its length is 14 miles, its maximum breadth 6 miles, its area 22 sq. miles. The impoverished inhabitants, who number between 1000 and 3000, are Sunnīs of mixed origin (Adeni, Ethiopian, Somali, Indian); they cultivate cotton and fish for pearls. At the end of the 4th/10th century the king of Yemen kept prisoners on Ḳamarān; in the first half of the 10th/16th century the island was occupied and fortified by th…

Sid̲j̲d̲j̲īl

(401 words)

Author(s): Vacca, V.
(a.), one of the mysterious words of the Ḳurʾān, appearing in XI, 84/82; XV, 74; and CV, 4. The derivation in the Arabic sources from Persian sang “stone” and gil “mud” did not satisfy Horovitz. It seems to designate stones resembling lumps of clay, fired or sun-dried, since this is corroborated by LI, 33-4, “... That we may loose on them stones of clay, marked by your Lord for the prodigal”. Some commentators add that these stones had been baked in the fire of Hell, and the expre…

Sad̲j̲āḥ

(891 words)

Author(s): Vacca, V.
(i.e. Sad̲j̲āḥi ), Umm Ṣādir bint Aws b. Ḥiḳḳ b. Usāma, or bint al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Suwayd b. ʿUḳfān, prophetess and soothsayer, one of several prophets and tribal leaders who sprang up in Arabia shortly before and during the Ridda [ q.v. in Suppl.], the risings undertaken after the Prophet’s death to throw off the political and military supremacy in Arabia of Medina. The genealogy, which her history proves to be the true one, shows that she belonged to the Banū Tamīm. On her mother’s side she was related to the Tag̲h̲lib, a tribe which co…

Sid̲j̲d̲j̲īl

(228 words)

Author(s): Vacca, V.
, a mysterious word in the Ḳurʾān, Sūra xi. 84, xv. 74, cv. 4, derived from the Persian and , stone and clay, and meaning stones like lumps of dry or baked clay; this is corroborated by Sūra li. 33—34: „To throw on them stones of clay, marked by thy Lord.” Commentators add that these stones had been baked in hell-fire, and interpret “marked by thy Lord” (xi. 84 and li. 34) to mean that on the stones were inscribed the names of the persons for whom they were destined. Other interpretations, not generally admitted, of sid̲j̲d̲j̲īl are: what has been written or decreed (clearly derived from i…

Ḳuraiẓa

(1,089 words)

Author(s): Vacca, V.
, Banū, one of the three Jewish tribes of Yat̲h̲rib, related to the Banū ’l-Naḍīr. The two tribes together bore the name of Banū Darīh, and were said to have settled in Yat̲h̲rib much later than the other Jews. In what proportion their original Palestinian stock had intermixed with the Arabs, it is not possible to say, but al-Yaʿḳūbī’s statement that both tribes were only hebraized Ḏj̲ud̲h̲ām (Ḳuḍāʿa), is not credible. The Banū Ḳuraiẓa consisted of two branches: Banū Kaʿb and Banū ʿAmr; they resided outside the city on the southern side, along the Wādī Mahzūr, with…

Zaynab bt. Muḥammad

(285 words)

Author(s): Vacca, V.
, daughter of the Prophet by his first wife K̲h̲adīd̲j̲a [ q.v.], and said to have been his eldest one. Before Muḥammad began his public ministry, she married a rich man of Ḳurays̲h̲ from the clan of ʿAbd S̲h̲ams, her maternal cousin Abu ’l-ʿĀṣ Laḳīṭ b. al-Rabīʿ. She was in al-Ṭāʾif at the time of Muḥammad’s hid̲j̲ra , and did not follow him to Medina. Her husband, still a non-Muslim, was captured at Badr. Zaynab sent a necklace that had belonged to her mother K̲h̲adīd̲j̲a to ransom him, and the Prophet freed him on condition tha…

Sid̲j̲d̲j̲īn

(295 words)

Author(s): Vacca, V.
(a.), one of the mysterious words of the Ḳurʾān, appearing in LXXXIII, 7-9: “Nay, but the book of the libertines is in sid̲j̲d̲j̲īn ! And what shall teach you what is sid̲j̲d̲j̲īn? [It is] a book inscribed.” The majority of commentators take this as a proper name. The word has attracted a dozen interpretations, which are grouped around two central concepts: (1) Sid̲j̲d̲j̲īn is the seventh and lowest earth, or a rock or well in Hell, or even the home of Iblīs; (2) It is the name of the record in which all human acts are set down. Without the definite article, sid̲j̲d̲j̲īn designates Hell Fire, or…

Waraḳa

(407 words)

Author(s): Vacca, V.
b. Nawfal b. Asad al-Ḳuras̲h̲ī, a cousin of Ḵh̲adīd̲j̲a, who encouraged and possibly influenced Muḥammad in the first years of his mission. ¶ All we know concerning him has the colour of legend: he is classed with the (artificial?) group of Meccans known to tradition as the ḥanīfs, who, abandoning paganism, resolved to seek for the true religion of Abraham. Waraḳa became a Christian; he was abstemious, knew Hebrew, studied the Bible, and had written down the Gospels in Hebrew (in the Hebrew alphabet?). In his relations with Muḥammad he is endowed with supernatural powers, like …

Usāma

(579 words)

Author(s): Vacca, V.
b. Zaid b. Ḥārit̲h̲a al-Kalbī al-Hās̲h̲imī, Abū Muḥammad, son of the Abyssinian freedwoman Baraka Umm Aiman and reckoned among the Prophet’s freedmen, was born in Mecca in the fourth year of the mission. Tradition records many instances of the Prophet’s fondness for him as a child, and gives him the surname of Ḥibb b. Ḥibb Rasūl Allāh. He joined the fighters on the way to Uhud, but was sent back before battle on account of his tender age. Questioned by Muḥammad in the case of slander against ʿĀʾis̲h̲a, he spoke in her favour. After Ḵh̲aibar he received a pension, and in a. h. 8 rode behind the P…

Ṭulaiḥa b. K̲h̲uwailid

(730 words)

Author(s): Vacca, V.
b. Nawfal al-Asadī al-Faḳʿadī, one of the tribal leaders who headed the ridda as prophets. In 4 a. h., being in command of the Banū Asad with his brother Salama, he suffered defeat from the Muslims in the expedition of Ḳaṭan. The following year he took part in the siege of Madīna. Early in 9 a. h. Ṭulaiḥa, as one of ten Asadīs, probably representing only a section of the tribe, came to Madīna and submitted to Muḥammad; Sūra xlix. 14-17 is said to rebuke their arrogance, but a tradition that only Ṭulaiḥa embraced Islām, points to political submission …

Zainab bint Muḥammad

(241 words)

Author(s): Vacca, V.
, one of the Prophet’s daughters, said to have been the eldest, was married before her father’s mission to her maternal cousin Abu ’l-ʿĀṣī b. al-Rabīʿ. She was in al-Ṭāʾif at the time of Muḥammad’s hid̲j̲ra, and did not follow him to Madīna; her husband, still a pagan, was taken prisoner at Badr. Zainab sent a necklace which had belonged to Ḵh̲adīd̲j̲a to ransom him, and Muḥammad freed him on condition that Zainab should come to Madīna. On her way thither she was maltreated by al-Ḥabbār b. al-Aswad and had a fall which caused her to miscarry (some authors place this accident in 8 a. h. and attribut…

Zaid b. Ḥārit̲h̲a

(404 words)

Author(s): Vacca, V.
b. S̲h̲arāḥīl al-Kalbī, Abū Usāma, was brought as a slave to Makka by Ḥakim b. Ḥizām b. Ḵh̲uwailid, a nephew of Ḵh̲adīd̲j̲a’s, who had bought him in Syria and sold him to her. Ḵh̲adīd̲j̲a made a gift of Zaid to Muḥammad before his mission. His father Ḥārit̲h̲a came to Makka to obtain his freedom, but Zaid refused to leave Muḥammad, who thereupon freed him and adopted him. He was thenceforward known as Zaid b. Muḥammad, and was often associated in his adopted father’s commercial enterprises. About ten years younger than Muḥammad, Zaid was one of the very first converts to Islām, …

Zainab bint K̲h̲uzaima

(113 words)

Author(s): Vacca, V.
b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ al-Hilālīya, one of Muḥammad ’s wives, had borne the name of Umm al-Masākīn since the Ḏj̲āhilīya. Her first husband, al-Ṭufail b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲, had divorced her; the second, ʿUbaida b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲, was killed at Badr. Muḥammad married her in Ramaḍān 4 a. h. and gave her a dowry of 400 dirhams; she died 2 or 8 months later, the first of his Madīnese wives to die before him, and was buried in the cemetery of al-Baḳīʿ. (V. Vacca) Bibliography Ibn Saʿd, ed. Sachau, viii. 82 Caetani, Annali dell’ Islām, 4 a. h., § 16 and § 22 al-Ṭabarī, ed. de Goeje, i. 1775—1776 Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, Usd al-G̲h̲…

Sid̲j̲ill

(231 words)

Author(s): Vacca, V.
, one of the mysterious words of the Ḳurʾān, Sūra xx. 104: “The day in which we shall fold the sky as al-sid̲j̲īll to the books”. Derived from sigillum through σιγίλλιον, the word is used in Arabic for written statements of contracts, records of a ḳāḍī in which his sentences are written, and, in general, writing, scroll or roll for writing upon or written upon. Lexicographers and commentators of the Ḳurʾān, while recognizing the word as foreign, have ascribed it either to Abyssinian or to Persian, one or both of these languages being usual…

Zaid b. ʿAmr

(244 words)

Author(s): Vacca, V.
b. Nufail, a Makkan and Ḳuras̲h̲ī, one of the religious seekers known as the ḥanīf, died before Muḥammad’s mission, when the Prophet was about 35. He had abandoned the pagan religion without embracing either Christianity or Judaism, objected to female infanticide, refused to eat the flesh of animals sacrificed to idols or slaughtered without invoking God’s name, and considered himself the only true believer in Makka and a follower of Abraham’s religion. A cousin of ʿOmar b. al-Ḵh̲aṭṭāb, he was married to Ṣafī…

Sid̲j̲d̲j̲īn

(266 words)

Author(s): Vacca, V.
, one of the mysterious words of the Ḳurʾān, lxxxiii. 7 and 8: “Verily the register of the wicked is surely in sid̲j̲d̲j̲īn. And what shall make thee understand what is sid̲j̲d̲j̲īn ? A book written”. Explained by commentators as a place where a record of the deeds of the wicked is kept, and also as that record itself. It is said to be a valley in Hell; the seventh and lowest earth, where Iblls is chained; a rock beneath the earth or the seventh earth; a place beneath Iblls, where the spirits of the wicked are; a register comprising the deeds of the wicked, of the d̲j̲inn and of mankind, or of the de…

ʿUrwa b. al-Zubair

(393 words)

Author(s): Vacca, V.
b. ʿAwwām, al-Asadī al-Madanī, one of the earliest and foremost authorities on tradition in Madīna, born between 23 and 29 a. h., died between 91 and 99. His mother was the celebrated Asmāʾ bint Abī Bakr, his father al-Zubair b. al-ʿAwwām b. Ḵh̲uwailid was a nephew of Ḵh̲adīd̲j̲a. Some thirty years younger than his brother ʿAbd Allāh, ʿUrwa did not take part in politics or in the civil wars, but gave himself up entirely to study. When his brother, in 73, was vanquished by al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲, ʿUrwa abandoned him, lik…

Sawda Bint Zamʿa

(474 words)

Author(s): Vacca, V.
b. Ḳais,Muḥammad’s second wife, was one of the first women who embraced Islām. She accompanied her first husband al-Sakrān b. ʿAmr and her brother Malik to Abyssinia, with the second party of Muslims who repaired thither. The pair returned to Mekka before the Hid̲j̲ra, and al-Sakrān, who had become a Christian in Abyssinia, died there. By this union Sawda had a son, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, who was killed in the battle of Ḏj̲alūlā. Sawda’s marriage to Muḥammad was arranged by Ḵh̲awla bint Ḥakīm, who wished to console him for the loss of Ḵh̲adīd̲j̲a, and took place about a mo…
▲   Back to top   ▲