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ʿUt̲h̲mān b. Maẓʿūn

(405 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
b. Ḥabīb, Abu ’l-Sāʾib , of the Ḳurays̲h̲ clan of D̲j̲umaḥ, one of the earliest Companions of Muḥammad, the thirteenth man to adopt Islam and brother-in-law of the second caliph ʿUmar b. al-K̲h̲aṭṭāb. He took part in the hid̲j̲ra to Abyssinia, returned, like some other refugees, on the false news of a reconciliation between Muḥammad and his pagan enemies, and became for some time the client of al-Walīd b. al-Mug̲h̲īra. Soon he renounced this privilege, because he preferred to bear his share in the insults offered to his co-religionists ¶ in Mecca. On a quarrel between ʿUt̲h̲mān and …

Matn

(207 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
(a.), a term with various meanings, of which that of text of a ḥadīt̲h̲ [ q.v.] is to be noted. Matn already appears with the sense of “text” in pre-Islamic poetry, and has been used thus in Arabic literature up to the present day. It denotes especially the text of a book as distinguished from its oral explanation or its written or printed commentary. In connection with traditions, matn denotes the content or text itself, in distinction from the chain of traditionists who have handed it down ( isnād [ q.v.]). The choice of this term to designate the body of a ḥadīt̲h̲ led Goldziher to put forwar…

Rasūl

(783 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
(a., pl. rusul ), messenger, apostle. 1. In the religious sense. According to the Ḳurʾān, there is a close relation between the apostle and his people ( umma [ q.v.]). To each umma God sends only one apostle (sūra X, 48, XVI, 38 cf. XXIII, 46, XL, 5). These statements are parallel to those which mention the witness whom God will take from each umma at the Day of Judgment (IV, 45, XXVIII, 75 and cf. the descriptions of the rasūl who will cross the bridge to the other world at the head of his umma: al-Buk̲h̲ārī, Ad̲h̲ān , bāb 129; Riḳāḳ , bāb 52). Muḥammad is sent to a people to whom Allāh has not ye…

Amīr al-Muslimīn

(108 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
, i.e. lord of the Muslims, a title which the Almoravids first assumed, in contra-distinction to Amīr al-Muʾminīn [ q.v.]. The latter title was born by the independent dynasties; the Almoravids, however, recognized the supremacy of the ʿAbbāsids and did not wish to arrogate to themselves this title of the Caliphs. So they established a kind of sub-caliphate with a title of their own. Afterwards the African and Spanish princes bore either the one or the other of these titles, according as they sought after the independent caliphate or recognized any supremacy. (A.J. Wensinck) Bibliography…

K̲h̲id̲h̲lān

(437 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
(a.), nomen actionis from the root k̲h̲-d̲h̲-l , “to leave in the lurch”, a technical term in Islamic theology, applied exclusively to Allāh when He withdraws His grace or help from man. The disputes regarding it first appear in connection with the quarrel over ḳadar [ q.v.]. A starting point is found in Sūra III, 154/160: “but if He abandon you to yourselves ( yak̲h̲d̲h̲ul-kum ), who will help you after Him? Let the faithful therefore trust in God”. On this al-Rāzī observes: “The Companions deduce from this verse that belief is exclusiv…

Samūm

(588 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
(a.), yielding Fr. simoun and Eng. simoom, a hot wind of the desert accompanied by whirlwinds of dust and sand, and set in motion by moving depressions which form within the trade winds or calm zones of the high, subtropical depressions. This wind is especially characteristic of the Sahara, in Egypt, in Arabia and in Mesopotamia. The word occurs in three passages of the Ḳurʾān, where it is, however, not especially applied to the wind. In sūra XV, 27, it is said that the Ḏj̲ānn were created from the fire of Samūm. In LII, 27, the punishment of the Samūm is …

Mīkāl

(994 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
, the archangel Michael [see also malāʾika ], whose name occurs once in the Ḳurʾān, viz. in II, 92: “Whosoever is an enemy to God, or his angels, or his apostles, or to Gabriel or to Michael, verily God is an enemy to the unbelievers.” In explanation of this verse two stories are told. According to the first, the Jews, wishing to test the veracity of the mission of Muḥammad, asked him several questions, to all of which he gave the true answer. Finally, they asked him, who transmit…

ʿUtba b. Rabīʿa

(315 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
b. ʿAbd s̲h̲ams b. ʿAbd manāf , Abu ’l-Walīd , one of the chiefs of the Meccan tribe of Ḳurays̲h̲, who refused to follow Muḥammad. He met his death in the battle of Badr. His daughter Hind [ q.v.] was the wife of Abū Sufyān [ q.v.], and she avenged herself at Uhud on her father’s killer Ḥamza b. ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib. S̲h̲ocked by the number of adherents of Muḥammad, ʿUtba, having consulted the other chiefs of the Ḳurays̲h̲, went to the Prophet to offer him anything he would care to ask if he would only abandon his propaganda. According to the traditional stor…

Nāfila

(736 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
(a.), pl. nawāfil , from n-f-l “to give something freely”, a term of law and theology meaning’ supererogatory work. 1. The word occurs in the Ḳurʾān in two places. Sūra XXI, 72, runs: “And we bestowed on him [viz. Ibrāhīm] Isaac and Jacob as an additional gift” ( nāfilatan ). In XVII, 81, it is used in combination with the vigils, thus: “And perform vigils during a part of the night, reciting the Ḳurʾān, as a nāfila for thee”. In ḥadīt̲h̲ it is frequently used in this sense. “Forgiveness of sins past and future was granted to him [Muḥammad] and his wor…

Munkar wa-Nakīr

(952 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
(the forms with the article are also found), the names of the two angels who examine and if necessary punish the dead in their tombs. To the examination in the tomb the infidels and the faithful—the righteous as well as the sinners—are liable. They are set upright in their tombs and must state their opinion regarding Muḥammad. The righteous faithful will answer that he is the Apostle of Allāh; thereupon they will be left alone till the Day of Resurrection. The sinners and the infidels, on the ot…

Mīlād

(71 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
(a.). According to some Arabic lexicographers, the meaning of this term is time of birth in contradistinction to mawlid , which may denote also “place of birth”. The latter is the usual term for birthday, especially in connection with the birthday of the Prophet Muḥammad and Muslim saints [see mawlid ]; mīlād denotes also Christmas. For other special meanings, cf. Dozy, Supplément, s.v. (A.J. Wensinck) Bibliography See the Arabic lexicons.

Ḳunūt

(1,028 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
(a.), a technical term of Islamic religion, with various meanings, regarding the fundamental signification of which there is no unanimity among the lexicographers. “Refraining from speaking”, “prayer during the ṣalāt ”, “humility and recognition that one’s relation to Allāh is that of a creature to his creator”, “standing” — these are the usual dictionary definitions which are also found in the commentaries on different verses of the Ḳurʾān where ḳunūt or derivatives from the root ḳ-n-t occur. There is hardly one of these for which the context pro…

ʿAmr b. Hind

(246 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
, son of the Lak̲h̲mid prince al-Mund̲h̲ir and of the Kindite woman Hind; after the death of his father, he became "king"of al-Ḥīra (554-570 A.D.). He was a warlike and cruel prince; the story of how he sent the poets al-Mutalammis and Ṭarafa to the governor of Baḥrayn with letters ¶ containing their own death warrants, is well-known. The severity of his character earned him the surname of Muḍarriṭ al-Ḥid̲j̲āra ("he who makes the stones emit sounds"). He was also called Muḥarriḳ ("burner"); in explanation of this surname, the Arabs recount that…

Nad̲j̲is

(658 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
(a.), impure, the opposite of ṭāhir [see Ṭahāra ]. According to the S̲h̲āfiʿī doctrine, as systematised by al-Nawawī ( Minhād̲j̲ , i, 36 ff.; cf. G̲h̲azālī, al-Wad̲j̲īz , i, 6-7), the following are the things impure in themselves ( nad̲j̲āsāt ): wine and other spirituous drinks, dogs, swine, mayta , blood and excrements; and milk of animals whose flesh is not eaten. Regarding these groups, the following may be remarked. On wine and other spirituous drinks cf. the arts, k̲h̲amr and nabīd̲h̲ .—Dogs are not declared impure in the Ḳurʾān; on the contrary, in…

Tahad̲j̲d̲j̲ud

(749 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
(a.), verbal noun of form V from the root h-d̲j̲-d , which is one of the roots with opposed meanings ( addād [ q.v.]), as it signifies "sleep" and also "to be awake", "to keep a vigil", "to perform the night ṣalāt or the nightly recitation of the Ḳur’ān". The latter two meanings have become the usual ones in Islam. The word occurs only once in the Ḳurʾān, sūra XVII, 81: "And in a part of the night, perform a ṣalāt as a voluntary effort", etc., but the thing itself is often referred to. We are told of the pious (LI, 17) that they sleep little by night and pray to God for for…

Subḥa

(1,031 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
(a.), in Egyptian colloquial pronunciation sibḥa ; in Persian and Muslim Indian usage, more often tasbīḥ , Ottoman Turkish tesbīḥ , modern tespih , rosary. It is used at present by nearly all classes of Muslims, except the Wahhābīs who disapprove of it as a bidʿa and who count the repetition of the sacred names on their hands. There is evidence for its having been used at first in Ṣūfī circles and among the lower classes (Goldziher, Rosaire , 296); opposition against it made itself heard as late as the 9th/15th century, when al-Suyūṭī composed an apology for it (Goldziher, Vorlesungen über den …

Rātib

(124 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
(a., pl. rawātib ), a word meaning what is fixed and hence applied to certain non-obligatory ṣalāts or certain litanies. The term is not found in the Ḳurʾan nor as a technical term in Ḥadīt̲h̲ . On the first meaning, see nāfila . As to the second, it is applied to the d̲h̲ikr [ q.v.] which one recites alone, as well as to those which are recited in groups. We owe to Snouck Hurgronje a detailed description of the rawātib practised in Acheh [ q.v.]. (A.J. Wensinck) Bibliography C. Snouck Hurgronje, De Atjèhers, Batavia-Leiden 1893-4, ii, 220. English tr. O’Sullivan, The Achehnese. Leiden 1906, ii…

K̲h̲ubayb

(876 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
b. ʿAdī al-Anṣārī , one of the first martyrs of Islām. The main features of his story common to all versions are as follows: After the battle of Uḥud [ q.v.] (on the chronology of which, see below) a small body of ten of the Prophet’s followers was discovered and surrounded between Mecca and ʿUsfān by 100 (or 200) Liḥyānīs who belonged to the Hud̲h̲ayl. The leader of the hard-pressed little band, ʿĀṣim b. T̲h̲ābit al-Anṣārī (according to others, the leader was al-Mart̲h̲ad), proudly refused to yield. He and six others were k…

Rahbāniyya

(503 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
(a.), monasticism. The term is derived from rāhib [ q.v.] “anchovite, monk”; it occurs in the Ḳurʾān once only, in a complicated passage (sūra LVII, 27) that has given rise to divergent interpretations: “And we put in the hearts of those who followed Jesus, compassion and mercy, and the monastic state ( rahbāniyya ); they instituted the same (we did not prescribe it to them) only out of a desire to please God. Yet they observed not the same as it ought truly to have been observed. And we gave unto such of them as believed, their reward; but many of them have been doers of evil.” According to some of …

Muslim

(261 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A.J.
(a.), the active participle of the IVth form of the root s-l-m, designates the person who professes Islam [ q.v.], islāmī being exclusively used today for what is relative to Islam and having, as a corresponding term, the forms in western languages islamic , islamique , islamisch , etc. However, in the 4th/10th century the theologian al-As̲h̲ʿarī [ q.v.] called his heresiographical work Maḳālāt al-Islāmiyyīn in order not to prejudice the question which of the various sects could or could not be called muslim . Whilst forms like mohammedan , mahométan , maomettano ,…
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