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(335 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
, Meḥmed , Ottoman biographer (1261-1326/1845-1909). Meḥmed T̲h̲üreyyā was born in Istanbul, the son of Meḥmed Ḥüsnü Bey, an Ottoman civil servant. In 1863 he joined the translation office of the Bāb-i̊ ʿĀlī, and for some time was also on the staff of the newspaper Ḏj̲erīde-yi Ḥawādīt̲h̲ . He was appointed in 1886 to the Council of Education, where he served until his death in 1909. He was buried in the Ḳarad̲j̲a Aḥmed cemetery at Üsküdar (Ö.F. Akün, art. Süreyya , in İA , ix, 247). He wrote or compiled more than forty volumes, said to include a multi-part Arabic-Persian-Ottoman-…

Sinān Pas̲h̲a, K̲h̲od̲j̲a

(1,834 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine | Babinger, Fr. | Dávid, G.
, the name of two Ottoman dignitaries. 1. The vizier, scholar and prose writer (845-91/1440-86). Sinān al-Dīn Yūsuf Pas̲h̲a was born probably in 845/1440, in Bursa, the son of K̲h̲i̊ḍr Beg b. Ḳāḍī D̲j̲elāl al-Dīn (d. 863/1459 [ q.v.]), the first Ottoman ḳāḍī of Istanbul. Through his mother, a daughter of Mollā Yegān (d. 878/1473), he was also descended from a second ʿulemāʾ family prominent in the early Ottoman period. After initial appointments as müderris in Edirne, he was promoted by Meḥemmed II to a teaching post at the Istanbul ṣaḥn-i themāniye [ q.v.], to be held jointly with that of k̲h̲…


(797 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
, Nergisī-zāde Meḥmed Efendi (d. 1044/1635), pre-eminent Ottoman prose stylist. He was born in Sarajevo, probably around 994/1586, son of the ḳāḍī Nergis Aḥmed Efendi, and completed his education in Istanbul, becoming a protégé of Ḳāf-zāde Fayḍ Allāh Efendi (d. 1020/1611), from whom (and not, as in some accounts, from his son Kāf-zāde ʿAbd al-Ḥayy Fāʾiḍī Efendi) he received his mülāzemet [ q.v.]. He may have served briefly as a müderris , but his principal employment was as ḳāḍī in various posts in Rūmeli, mainly in Bosnia. Following early appointments (during the period ca, 1022-27 /ca. …


(262 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
(p., T.), a title of Ottoman princes. The term s̲h̲ehzāde (or s̲h̲āhzāde , from Pers. s̲h̲āh “king” + zāda “born of”), “prince”, was one of the titles used for the male children born to a reigning Ottoman sultan. It is said to have been introduced by Meḥemmed I (816-24/1413-21) for his own sons, and over subsequent decades gradually superseded the earlier term čelebi . S̲h̲ehzāde came into use around the same time as the tide pādis̲h̲āh [ q.v.], as part of the general elevation of Ottoman political and cultural pretensions following Meḥemmed I’s reunification of the stat…

Yak̲h̲s̲h̲i Faḳīh

(237 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
, Ottoman historian, d. after 816/1413. Yak̲h̲s̲h̲i Faḳīh is the earliest known compiler of menāḳib [see manāḳib ] or exemplary tales of the Ottoman ¶ dynasty in Ottoman Turkish. However, his compilation has not survived as an independent work, and the only reference to it is that made by ʿĀs̲h̲i̊ḳpas̲h̲azāde [ q.v.]. The latter records that in 816/1413, while accompanying Meḥemmed I’s army on campaign, he fell ill and “remained behind at Geyve, in the house of Yak̲h̲s̲h̲i Faqīh, the son of Ork̲h̲ān Beg’s imām ... it is on the authority of the son of the imām that I relate the menāqib


(319 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
, Ibrāhīm b. al-Seyyid ʿAbd ül-Bāḳī (1075-1136/1664-1724), Ottoman scholar and biographer. He stemmed from a prominent family of ʿulemāʾ : his father was ḳāḍī of Mecca, his maternal grandfather was naḳīb ül-es̲h̲rāf and his younger brother ʿAbdullāh (d. 1139/1726-7 became ḳāḍī-ʿasker of Rūmeli. Ibrāhīm followed a middle-ranking career as a müderris , later rising to the posts of ḳāḍī of Medina (1119/1707) and of Izmir (1125-6/1713-14). He died in Istanbul and was buried at the Keskin Dede cemetery near the Mosque of Nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i̊ Pas̲h̲a (Sālim, Ted̲h̲kere


(363 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
, Meḥmed Hemdemī (?-1068/1658), Ottoman historian and musical composer. Very little is known about the life and career of Ṣolaḳ-zāde. Described as “old” at the time of his death, he was perhaps born sometime around the year 1000/1592. He died in Istanbul in 1068/1658. His father may have been a retired ṣolaḳ-bas̲h̲i̊ , whose connections gave his son an early entrée into the Ottoman imperial household, with which he remained closely associated. The mak̲h̲las Hemdemī reflected his status as “constant companion” to Murād IV (1…

Rüstem Pas̲h̲a

(945 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
(906?-968/1500?-1561) Ottoman Grand Vizier. Born ca. 1500 in a village near Sarajevo, Rüstem Pas̲h̲a came of a family most probably of Bosnian origin (though some sources mention Croatian or possibly Albanian ancestry), whose pre-Muslim surname had been either Opukovič or Čigalič (cf. Albèri, Relazioni degli ambasciatori veneti al senato , ser. iii, vol. iii, 89; C. Truhelka, Bosnische Post , Sarajevo 1912, no. 80). A register from the ḳāḍī ’s [ q.v.] court at Sarajevo, dated 974/1557, records the sale of a house by Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī ʿAlī Beg b. K̲h̲ayr al-Dīn, mütewellī of Rüstem Pas̲h̲a’s be…


(497 words)

Author(s): Woodhead, Christine
(or S̲h̲ehnāmed̲j̲i ) (t.), the term for an Ottoman writer of literary-historical works in a style inspired by the S̲h̲āh-nāma of the Persian poet Firdawsī [ q.v.], i.e. works composed in Persian, in the mat̲h̲nawī form of rhymed couplets in the mutaḳārib metre, describing in fulsome terms the military exploits of the reigning sultan. The first Ottoman compositions in the s̲h̲ehnāme genre date from the mid-9th/15th century, as occasional works written for presentation to Meḥemmed II (1451-81). An official, salaried post of s̲h̲ehnāmed̲j̲i “writer of s̲h̲ehnāmes
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