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al-Muḳtafī

(423 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
li-amr allāh , abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad , ʿAbbāsid caliph (reigned 530-55/1136-60), born on 12 Rabīʿ II 489/9 April 1096, the son of al-Mustaẓhir [ q.v.] and a slave girl. After the deposition of his nephew al-Rās̲h̲id [ q.v.], al-Muḳtafī was acknowledged as caliph on 8 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 530/17 September 1136. While the Sald̲j̲ūḳs were fighting among themselves, he did his best not only to maintain his independence but also to extend his rule, and one district after the other in ʿIrāḳ fell into his hands. In 543/1148 a number of amīrs denounced their allegiance…

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. al-Ḥad̲jd̲j̲ād̲j̲

(311 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. ʿAbd al-Malik , Umayyad general. He was a faithful partisan of his cousin Yazīd III and one of his ¶ most eminent assistants. Already in al-Walīd II’s reign he helped Yazīd, who headed the malcontents, to enlist troops against the caliph. When they had succeeded in getting together an army in Damascus, ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz received the supreme command and marched against al-Walīd. Yazīd’s brother ʿAbbās, who was about to go to the caliph’s assistance, was attacked and forced to pay homage to Yazīd. Shortly afterwards ʿ…

Rabīb al-Dawla

(242 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
Abū Manṣūr b. Abī S̲h̲ud̲j̲āʿ Muḥammad b. al-Ḥusayn , vizier of the ʿAbbāsids and Sald̲j̲ūḳs. When the vizier Abū S̲h̲ud̲j̲āʿ Muḥammad al-Rūd̲h̲rāwarī [ q.v.] made the pilgrimage to Mecca in 481/1089, he appointed his son Rabīb al-Dawla and the naḳīb al-nuḳabāʾ Ṭirād b. Muḥammad al-Zaynabī his deputies, and in 507/1113-14, on the death of Abu ’l-Ḳāsim ʿAlī b. Fak̲h̲r al-Dawla Muḥammad b. D̲j̲ahīr [see d̲j̲ahīr , banū ], Rabīb al-Dawla was appointed vizier of the caliph al-Mustaẓhir [ q.v.]. In D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 511/April 1118 the fourteen-year old Maḥmūd b. Muḥammad [ q.v.] succeed…

D̲j̲alāl al-Dawla

(730 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
, Abū Ṭāhir b. Bahā ʾal-Dawla , a Būyid, born in 383/993-4. When Sulṭān al-Dawla, after the death of his father Bahāʾ al-Dawla in 403/1012, was named amīr al-umarāʾ , he entrusted his brother D̲j̲alāl al-Dawla with the office of governor of Baṣra. The latter stayed there for several years without becoming involved in the private quarrels of the Būyids. In 415/1024-5 Sulṭān al-Dawla died and his brother Mus̲h̲arrif al-Dawla died in the following year. D̲j̲alāl al-Dawla was then proclaimed amīr al-umarāʾ, but, as he did not appear at Bag̲h̲dād to take possession of his new dig…

Hibat Allāh b. Muḥammad

(94 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. al-Muṭṭalib mad̲j̲d al-Dīn abu ’l-Maʿālī , vizier of the caliph al-Mustaẓhir. Hibat Allāh was appointed vizier in Muḥarram 501/August-September 1107, but he was dismissed in Ramaḍān under pressure from the Sald̲j̲ūḳ sultan Muḥammad b. Maliks̲h̲āh. It is true that the caliph soon restored him to office, forbidding him to employ any d̲h̲immīs [ q.v.], but in 502/1108-9 or 503/1109-10 Hibat Allāh was once again dismissed and he and his family were forced to seek the protection of the sultan. (K.V. Zetterstéen) Bibliography Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, x, 305, 309, 318, 330, 335.

ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Marwān

(239 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
, son of the caliph Marwān I and father of ʿUmar b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz was appointed governor of Egypt by his father, and the appointment was confirmed by ʿAbd al-Malik, when he ascended the throne. During his twenty years’ sojourn in Egypt, ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz proved himself a capable governor, who really had the welfare of his province at heart. When in the year 69/689, ʿAbd al-Malik, after the assasination of his rebellious lieutenant ʿAmr b. Saʿīd, intended to have the latter’s relatives…

al-Rāḍī Bi ’llāh

(790 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
, Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad ( Muḥammad ) b. al-Muḳtadir , the twentieth ʿAbbāsid caliph. He was born in Rabīʿ II 297/December 909; his mother was a slave named Ẓalūm. He was proposed for the caliphate immediately after the assassination of his father al-Muḳtadir [ q.v.], but the choice fell upon al-Ḳāhir [ q.v.]. The latter had him thrown into prison; after the fall of al-Ḳāhir, he was released and put upon the throne (D̲j̲umādā I 322/April 934). As his adviser in this difficult period, al-Rāḍī chose al-Muḳtadir’s vizier ʿAlī b. ʿĪsā [ q.v.] who asked, however, to be excused on account of hi…

al-Mustaḍī

(308 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
bi-Amr ’llāh , Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥasan , ʿAbbāsid caliph (566-75/1170-80), born on 23 S̲h̲aʿbān 536/23 March 1142, son of al-Mustand̲j̲id [ q.v.] and an Armenian slave named G̲h̲aḍḍa. After his father’s death on 9 Rabīʿ II 566/20 December 1170, al-Mustaḍīʾ succeeded him, and at the beginning of the following year was formally recognised as caliph in Egypt also, which passed into the hands of the Ayyūbids at this time [see fāṭimids ]. The assassins of al-Mustand̲j̲id soon quarrelled among themselves. ʿAḍud al-Dīn [ q.v.], whom al-Mustaḍīʾ had been forced to make vizier, was dismi…

al-Walīd b. al-Mug̲h̲īra

(502 words)

Author(s): Zettersteen, K.V.
b. ʿAbd Allāh , member of the powerful and numerous clan of Mak̲h̲zūm [ q.v.] in pre-Islamic Mecca, opponent of the Prophet Muḥammad and uncle of another opponent, Abū D̲j̲ahl [ q.v.] ʿAmr b. His̲h̲ām b. al-Mug̲h̲īra, d. just after the Hid̲j̲ra. Little is known of his life, but he clearly represented the aristocratic interests of his clan and was himself prosperous, seen in the fact that he is said to have owned a garden in Ṭāʾif which he planted for pleasure only and never gathered the fruit in it (Sprenger, i, 359). According to the c…

Muḥammad b. Yāḳūt

(580 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
, Abū Bakr , a chief of police ( ṣāḥib al-s̲h̲urṭa ) in Bag̲h̲dād. In 318/930 Muḥammad, whose father was chief chamberlain or ḥād̲j̲ib to the caliph al-Muḳtadir, was appointed chief of police. The maintenance of order in the capital at this time was much neglected, and the Turkish guards conducted a regular reign of terror. In a fracas between infantry and cavalry, Muḥammad intervened on behalf of the latter; their opponents ¶ were cut down, some driven from the city and only a small contingent of negroes, who at once surrendered, remained unscathed (Muḥarram 318/Fe…

ʿAbbād b. Ziyād

(139 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. Abī Sufyān , Abū Ḥarb , Umayyad general. Muʿāwiya appointed him governor of Sid̲j̲istān, where he stayed seven years; in the course of his expeditions to the East, he conquered Ḳandahār. In 61/680-1 he was dismissed by Yazīd b. Muʿāwiya who appointed in his place his brother Salm b. Ziyād to be governor of Sid̲j̲istān and Ḵh̲urāsān. In 64/684, he joined in the battle of Mard̲j̲ Rāhiṭ [ q.v.], at the head of a contingent formed by his own gens . Afterwards he wished to retire to Dūmat al-Ḏj̲andal, but he was obliged to combat a lieutenant of al-Muk̲h̲tār b. Abī ʿUbayd [ q.v.]. The date of his de…

Abān b. ʿUt̲h̲mān

(203 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. ʿAffān , governor, son of the third caliph. His mother was called Umm ʿAmr bint Ḏj̲undab b. ʿAmr al-Dawsiyya. Abān accompanied ʿĀʾis̲h̲a at the battle of the Camel in Ḏj̲umāda I 36/Nov. 656; on the battle terminating otherwise than was expected, he was one of the first to run away. On the whole, he does not seem to have been of any political importance. The caliph ʿAbd al-Malik b. Marwān appointed him as governor of Madīna. He occupied this position for seven years; he was then dismissed and his place was taken by His̲h̲ām b. Ismāʿīl. Abān owes his celebrity not so ¶ much to his activity as an…

Pahlawān

(340 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
, Muḥammad b. Ilden̄iz , Nuṣrat al-Dīn , Atābeg of Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān in the later 6th/12th century. His father Ildeñiz [ q.v.] had in course of time risen to be the real ruler in the Sald̲j̲ūḳ empire; the widow of Sultan Ṭog̲h̲ri̊l [ q.v.] was Pahlawān’s mother and Arslān b. Ṭog̲h̲ri̊l [ q.v.] his step-brother. In the fighting between Ildeñiz and the lord of Marāg̲h̲a, Ibn Aḳsunḳur al-Aḥmadīlī, Pahlawān played a prominent part [see marāg̲h̲a ]. From his father he inherited in 568/1172-3 Arrān, Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān, al-D̲j̲ibāl, Hamad̲h̲ān, Iṣfahān and…

Ṣadaḳa

(838 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. Manṣūr b. Dubays b. ʿAlī b. Mazyad , Sayf al-Dawla Abu ’l-Ḥasan al-Asadī , ruler of al-Ḥilla of the Arab line of Mazyadids [see mazyad , banū ]. After the death of his father in 479/1086-7, Ṣadaḳa was recognised by the Sald̲j̲ūḳ sultan Malik S̲h̲āh as lord of the territory on the left bank of the Tigris. During the fighting between sultan Berk-yaruḳ and his brother Muḥammad, Ṣadaḳa was at first on the side of the former, but when Berkyaruḳ’s vizier, al-Aʿazz Abu ’l-Maḥāsin al-Dihistānī, demanded a large sum of money fro…

ʿAbd Allāh b. Ḏj̲aʿfar

(313 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. Abī Ṭālib , nephew of the caliph ʿAlī. ʿAbd Allāh’s father had gone over to Islam very early, and took part in the emigration of the first believers to Abyssinia, where, according to the common belief, ʿAbd Allāh was born. On his mother’s side he was a brother of Muḥammad b. Abī Bakr; the mother’s name was Asmāʾ bint ʿUmays al-Ḵh̲at̲h̲ʿamiyya. After some years the father returned to Medīna taking his son with him. ʿAbd Allāh became known chiefly on account of his great generosity, and received the honorific surname of Baḥr al-Ḏj̲ūd , "the Ocean of Generosity". He…

Muḥammad b. Marwān

(404 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. al-Ḥakam , Abū ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, son of the first Marwānid caliph by a slave mother, hence half-brother to the caliph ʿAbd al-Malik [ q.v.], Umayyad commander and governor. In 65/684-5, he was sent by his father to al-D̲j̲azīra, probably with the aim of securing Armenia once more, and in the battle of Dayr al-D̲j̲āt̲h̲alīḳ in 72/691 in which ʿAbd al-Malik defeated Muṣʿab b. al-Zubayr, he commanded the advanced guard of the Syrian army. In the following year, ʿAbd al-Malik gave him the governorship of al-D̲j̲azīra and Armen…

ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Ḥasan

(419 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. al-Ḥasan , chief of the ʿAlids. ʿAbd Allāh was treated with great favour by the caliphs of the Umayyad dynasty, and when he visited the first ʿAbbāsid caliph Abu ʿl-ʿAbbās al-Saffāḥ at Anbār, the latter received him with great distinction. Thence he returned to Medīna, where he soon fell under the suspicion of the successor of al-Saffāḥ, al-Manṣūr. Yet ʿAbd Allāh owed his misfortune not so much to himself as to his two sons Mụḥammad and Ibrāhīm. Al-Manṣūr began to suspect them in 136/754, when …

al-ʿAbbās b. Muḥammad

(180 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. ʿAlī b. ʿAbd Allāh , brother of the caliphs Abu l-ʿAbbās al-Saffāḥ and Abū Ḏj̲āʿfar al-Manṣūr. ʿAbbās helped to retake Malaṭya in 139/756, and three years later was appointed by al-Manṣūr as governor of al-Ḏj̲azīra and the neighbouring frontier district. He was dismissed in 155/772, but his name continues to figure frequently in the history of the following years, however little important his political part may have been. He especially and often distinguished himself in the wars against the Byzant…

al-Mustaʿṣim Bi ’llāh

(388 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
, Abū Aḥmad ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Mustanṣir , the last ʿAbbāsid caliph of Bag̲h̲dād (640-56/1247-58), born in 609/1212-13. After the death of his father in D̲j̲umādā I or II 640/November-December 1242, he was raised to the caliphal throne, but he had neither the talent nor the strength to avert the catastrophe threatening from the Mongols; he allowed himself to be guided by bad counsellors who were not agreed among themselves but working against one another. In 683/1255-6, the Mongol K̲h̲ān Hūlagū [ q.v.] demanded that the Muslim rulers should make war on the Ismāʿīlīs of Alamūt. …

al-K̲h̲aṣībī

(225 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. ʿUbaid Allāh b. Aḥmad b. al-Ḵh̲aṣīb, a vizier. After the deposition of Abu ’l-Ḳāsim al-Ḵh̲āḳānī in Ramaḍān 313 (Nov. 925) (see ibn k̲h̲āḳān, 3) al-Ḵh̲aṣībī, who at that time was secretary to the mother of the Caliph al-Muḳtadir, was appointed vizier. But as he neglected his official duties and made himself generally hated for his extortions, he was deposed on the advice of the chief of police Muʾnis in Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 314 (Jan. 927) and ʿAlī b. ʿĪsā (see ibn al-d̲j̲arrāḥ, 2) appointed in his place. Till the latter could reach the capital, ʿUbaid Allāh b. M…
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