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Pahlawān

(340 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
, Muḥammad b. Ilden̄iz , Nuṣrat al-Dīn , Atābeg of Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān in the later 6th/12th century. His father Ildeñiz [ q.v.] had in course of time risen to be the real ruler in the Sald̲j̲ūḳ empire; the widow of Sultan Ṭog̲h̲ri̊l [ q.v.] was Pahlawān’s mother and Arslān b. Ṭog̲h̲ri̊l [ q.v.] his step-brother. In the fighting between Ildeñiz and the lord of Marāg̲h̲a, Ibn Aḳsunḳur al-Aḥmadīlī, Pahlawān played a prominent part [see marāg̲h̲a ]. From his father he inherited in 568/1172-3 Arrān, Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān, al-D̲j̲ibāl, Hamad̲h̲ān, Iṣfahān and…

Ṣadaḳa

(838 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. Manṣūr b. Dubays b. ʿAlī b. Mazyad , Sayf al-Dawla Abu ’l-Ḥasan al-Asadī , ruler of al-Ḥilla of the Arab line of Mazyadids [see mazyad , banū ]. After the death of his father in 479/1086-7, Ṣadaḳa was recognised by the Sald̲j̲ūḳ sultan Malik S̲h̲āh as lord of the territory on the left bank of the Tigris. During the fighting between sultan Berk-yaruḳ and his brother Muḥammad, Ṣadaḳa was at first on the side of the former, but when Berkyaruḳ’s vizier, al-Aʿazz Abu ’l-Maḥāsin al-Dihistānī, demanded a large sum of money fro…

ʿAbd Allāh b. Ḏj̲aʿfar

(313 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. Abī Ṭālib , nephew of the caliph ʿAlī. ʿAbd Allāh’s father had gone over to Islam very early, and took part in the emigration of the first believers to Abyssinia, where, according to the common belief, ʿAbd Allāh was born. On his mother’s side he was a brother of Muḥammad b. Abī Bakr; the mother’s name was Asmāʾ bint ʿUmays al-Ḵh̲at̲h̲ʿamiyya. After some years the father returned to Medīna taking his son with him. ʿAbd Allāh became known chiefly on account of his great generosity, and received the honorific surname of Baḥr al-Ḏj̲ūd , "the Ocean of Generosity". He…

Muḥammad b. Marwān

(404 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. al-Ḥakam , Abū ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, son of the first Marwānid caliph by a slave mother, hence half-brother to the caliph ʿAbd al-Malik [ q.v.], Umayyad commander and governor. In 65/684-5, he was sent by his father to al-D̲j̲azīra, probably with the aim of securing Armenia once more, and in the battle of Dayr al-D̲j̲āt̲h̲alīḳ in 72/691 in which ʿAbd al-Malik defeated Muṣʿab b. al-Zubayr, he commanded the advanced guard of the Syrian army. In the following year, ʿAbd al-Malik gave him the governorship of al-D̲j̲azīra and Armen…

ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Ḥasan

(419 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. al-Ḥasan , chief of the ʿAlids. ʿAbd Allāh was treated with great favour by the caliphs of the Umayyad dynasty, and when he visited the first ʿAbbāsid caliph Abu ʿl-ʿAbbās al-Saffāḥ at Anbār, the latter received him with great distinction. Thence he returned to Medīna, where he soon fell under the suspicion of the successor of al-Saffāḥ, al-Manṣūr. Yet ʿAbd Allāh owed his misfortune not so much to himself as to his two sons Mụḥammad and Ibrāhīm. Al-Manṣūr began to suspect them in 136/754, when …

al-ʿAbbās b. Muḥammad

(180 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. ʿAlī b. ʿAbd Allāh , brother of the caliphs Abu l-ʿAbbās al-Saffāḥ and Abū Ḏj̲āʿfar al-Manṣūr. ʿAbbās helped to retake Malaṭya in 139/756, and three years later was appointed by al-Manṣūr as governor of al-Ḏj̲azīra and the neighbouring frontier district. He was dismissed in 155/772, but his name continues to figure frequently in the history of the following years, however little important his political part may have been. He especially and often distinguished himself in the wars against the Byzant…

al-Mustaʿṣim Bi ’llāh

(388 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
, Abū Aḥmad ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Mustanṣir , the last ʿAbbāsid caliph of Bag̲h̲dād (640-56/1247-58), born in 609/1212-13. After the death of his father in D̲j̲umādā I or II 640/November-December 1242, he was raised to the caliphal throne, but he had neither the talent nor the strength to avert the catastrophe threatening from the Mongols; he allowed himself to be guided by bad counsellors who were not agreed among themselves but working against one another. In 683/1255-6, the Mongol K̲h̲ān Hūlagū [ q.v.] demanded that the Muslim rulers should make war on the Ismāʿīlīs of Alamūt. …

Muḥammad b. Ṭāhir

(346 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V.
b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Ṭāhir D̲h̲i ’l-Yamīnayn , last Ṭāhirid governor of K̲h̲urāsān. After the death of his father, Muḥammad received the governorship of K̲h̲urāsān (Rad̲j̲ab 248/September 862). In 250/864-5 the ʿAlid al-Ḥasan b. Zayd rebelled in Ṭabaristān, which led to a long and serious struggle [see muḥammad b. ʿabd allāh ]. When ʿAbd Allāh al-Sid̲j̲zī rebelled against Yaʿḳūb b. al-Layt̲h̲ al-Ṣaffār of Sīstān, and appealed for help to Muḥammad, who appointed him governor of al-Ṭabasayn and Ḳuhistān, Yaʿḳūb found a welcome pretext to invade K̲h̲ur…

al-Muḳallad

(346 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. al-Musaiyib, Ḥusām al-Dawla Abū Ḥassān, an ʿUḳailid. After the death in 386 (996) or 387 (997) of the ʿUḳailid emīr Abu ’l-Ḏh̲awwād Muḥammad b. al-Musaiyib [cf. bahāʾ al-dawla], a quarrel arose between his brothers, ʿAlī and al-Muḳallad, each of whom claimed power. ʿAlī was the elder; but al-Muḳallad wrote to Bahāʾ al-Dawla and promised him an annual tribute and then told his brother that Bahāʾ al-Dawla had appointed him governor of al-Mawṣil and asked ʿAlī’s help to take the town. Bahāʾ al-Dawla’s general in al-Mawṣil, Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲, ¶ took to flight and the tw…

Nūr al-Dīn

(2,598 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Maḥmūd b. ʿImād al-Dīn Zengī, called al-Malik al-ʿĀdil, atābeg of Ḥalab and Damascus. Nūr al-Dīn was born in S̲h̲awwāl 511 (Febr. 1118) and took part ¶ under his father in the siege of Ḳalʿat Ḏj̲aʿbar where the latter was murdered in Rabīʿ II 541 (Sept. 1146). His kingdom was then divided between his two sons, Saif al-Dīn G̲h̲āzī [q. v.] who took possession of al-Mawṣil, and Nūr al-Dīn who established himself in Ḥalab. Scarely had the news of ʿImād al-Dīn’s death reached Joscelin II who lived in Tell Bās̲h̲ir…

al-Faḍl

(499 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. al-Rabīʿ, al-Amīn’s vizier. A descendant of a Syrian slave manumitted by the Caliph Ot̲h̲mān, al-Faḍl proved himself thoroughly Arab in his attitude and constantly championed the Arab spirit in opposition to the numerous Iranian elements in the ʿAbbāsid empire. His father al-Rabīʿ b. Yūnus had played a part in history as vizier to the two Caliphs al-Manṣūr and al-Mahdī. When Hārūn on his accession gave the Barmecides preferment, al-Faḍl felt himself slighted and became filled with hatred and j…

al-Rūd̲h̲rāwarī

(340 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
Ẓahīr al-Dīn Abū S̲h̲ud̲j̲āʿ Muḥammad b. al-Ḥusain b. Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Ibrāhīm, an ʿAbbāsid vizier. Al-Rūd̲h̲rāwarī was born in al-Ahwāz in 437 (1045—1046); his father Abū Yaʿlā al-Ḥusain, who had died just as he was about to take over the vizierate to which he had been appointed by the Caliph al-Ḳāʾim [q. v.] (460 = 1067—1068), was a native of Rūd̲h̲rāwar, a little town near Hamad̲h̲ān. He studied in Bag̲h̲dād under the direction of S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Abū Isḥāḳ al-S̲h̲īrāzī and in 471 (1078—1079) was appoi…

al-Mustakfī

(259 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
bi ’llāh, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim ʿAbd Allāh, ʿ Abbāsid caliph, son of al-Muktafī and a slave-girl. After the Amīr al-Umarāʾ Tuzun had deposed the caliph al-Muttaḳī, he chose al-Mustakfī as his successor on the same day in Ṣafar 333 (Sept.-Oct. 944). The new caliph was only a tool in the hands of Tuzun and his successor Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar b. S̲h̲īrzād. Bag̲h̲dād began to suffer from a constant famine and neither food nor money could be raised for the troops. When the Būyid Aḥmad b. Abī S̲h̲ud̲j̲āʾ approached [cf. muʿizz al-dawla], the caliph had to declare himself ready to recognise the Būyids as t…

Ḏj̲alāl al-Dawla

(19 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
Further Bibliography: Bowen, The last Buwayhids (J. R. A. 5., 1929, p. 225—245). (K. V. Zetterstéen)

Ibrāhīm

(354 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
b. al-Mahdī, an ʿAbbāsid, born at the end of 162= July 779. His father was the Caliph Muḥammad al-Mahdī, his mother a negress named S̲h̲ikla. When the Caliph al-Maʾmūn, who was then in Marw, appointed the ʿAlid ʿAlī al-Riḍā successor on the end of Ramaḍān = 24th March 817, disturbances broke out among the ¶ followers of the ʿAbbāsids. At the end of Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a = July 817 they proclaimed al-Maʾmūn’s uncle, Ibrāhīm, Caliph under the name al-Mubārak (“the blessed”) and on the 5th Muḥarram 202 = 24th July 817 he publicly appeared in the mosque as ruler. His reign did not last …

Nūr al-Dīn

(1,156 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
Abu ’l-Ḥārit̲h̲ Arslān S̲h̲āh b. Masʿūd b. Mawdūd b. Zangī, called al-Malik al-ʿĀdil, lord of al-Mawṣil. After the death of his father [q. v.] in S̲h̲aʿbān 589 (Aug. 1193) Nūr al-Dīn succeeded him; the real ruler however in the early years of his tenure of office was the governor of the citadel, the eunuch Mud̲j̲āhid al-Dīn Ḳaimaz al-Zainī, who is described not only as a pious and learned man but as an official much concerned with the welfare of the people. He died in Rabīʿ I 595 (Jan. 1199) or, according t…

Hārūn

(996 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
al-Ras̲h̲id, the most celebrated of the ʿAbbāsid Caliphs, born in al-Raiy in Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 145 = March 763 or, according to another, in itself more probable authority, in Muḥarram 149 = February 766. His father was the Caliph Muḥammad al-Mahdī, his mother a slave named Ḵh̲aizurān, whom Mahdī set free and married in 159 = 775-776. After Hārūn ascended the throne in Rabīʿ I 170 = Sept. 786, he appointed the Barmakid Yaḥyā b. Ḵh̲ālid as vizier with unlimited power, and during the following se…

ʿAbd al-Malik

(232 words)

Author(s): Zettersteen,, K. V.
b. Ṣāliḥ b. ʿAlī, a cousin of the caliphs Abu ’l-ʿAbbās al-Saffāḥ and Abū Ḏj̲aʿfar al-Manṣūr. In Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd’s reign ʿAbd al-Malik undertook several expeditions against the Byzantines. Such campaigns took place under his command in the years 174 (790-791) and 181 (797-798), according to some authorities also in 175 (791-792), whilst others state that in the latter year not ʿAbd al-Malik himself, but his son ʿAbd al-Raḥmān held the command. Besides this he was governor of Medina for some time …

ʿAbbāsids

(471 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
The theory, generally accepted by European historians, of the solemn transfer of the caliphate by al-Mutawakkil, the last Egyptian ʿAbbāsid, to the Ottoman Sulṭān Selīm is devoid of any foundation and has been definitely relegated to the realm of legend by Barthold ( M. I., St. Petersburg 1912, i. 203—226, 345—400; see also Becker, Barthold’s Studien fiber Kalif und Sulṭān, in Isl., vi. 250—412) It owes its dissemination to a Stambul Armenian in Swedish service, Mouradgea d’Ohsson, who published it in his Tableau général de l’Empire Othoman, Paris 1788—1824, i. 232 and 269 sq.; cf. also…

Ibn ʿAbbād

(216 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K. V.
, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Ismāʿīl b. ʿAbbād b. al-ʿAbbās b. ʿAbbād b. Aḥmad b. Idrīs al-Ṭālaḳānī, vizier of the two Būyids Muʾaiyid al-Dawla and Fak̲h̲r al-Dawla, born in Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 326 (September 938). His father had been Rukn al-Dawla’s vizier; he himselff received the name ‘al-Ṣāḥib’ (the companion) on account of his relations with Abu ’l-Faḍl b. al-ʿAmīd [v. ibn al-ʿamīd] or Muʾaiyid al-Dawla, who appointed him his secretary. After the fall of Abu ’l-Fatḥ b. al-ʿAmīd [v. ibn al-ʿamīd] he was raised to the rank of vizier and when Muʾaiyid al-Dawla died in 373 (984) and the pow…
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